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Radiotherapy treatment

Radiotherapy is a common treatment for brain tumours. Find out what happens during and after your radiotherapy.

Radiotherapy uses high energy x-rays to kill cancer cells.

When you have it

Radiotherapy might be your main treatment if you have a brain tumour that your surgeon cannot remove.

Or you may have radiotherapy after surgery to:

  • treat any tumour that your surgeon couldn't remove
  • try to lower the risk of the brain tumour coming back in the future

How often you have radiotherapy

You are most likely to have radiotherapy for a brain tumour as a series of treatments for 3 to 7 weeks.

You usually have one treatment a day, from Monday to Friday. Or you might have treatment twice a day for some types of tumour.  

You might have radiotherapy to help with symptoms or slow down the growth of your tumour. This is called palliative radiotherapy and is usually a shorter course of treatment. For example, over about 2 weeks.

Types of radiotherapy

You usually have external beam radiotherapy to treat brain tumours. External radiotherapy destroys cancer cells using radiation aimed at a cancer from a machine. The most common type of radiotherapy machine is called a linear accelerator machine (LINAC). This uses electricity to create the radiotherapy beams.

Stereotactic radiotherapy
You might have a type of external beam radiotherapy called stereotactic radiotherapy. It uses the LINAC machine. This treatment gives high doses of radiotherapy to the area of the tumour and can treat some small tumours in certain areas of the brain.  

Treatment is usually divided into daily doses called fractions. The number of fractions can vary from 3 to 30 fractions, depending on a person's situation.

Radiosurgery
Or some people have radiosurgery. This is very high dose stereotactic radiotherapy over a shorter period of time. For example, you might have a single treatment, or up to 5 treatments.

Before your radiotherapy treatment

Your head needs to be kept as still as possible during radiotherapy. This is called immobilisation. So before your treatment you have a plastic mask made. Or you might have a head frame fitted. The type of immobilisation you have depends on the type of radiotherapy you have.

The mask is made to mould the shape of your face. It covers the whole of your face and the front of your head. The mask in turn attaches to the scanner or radiotherapy machine bed while you are wearing it. This means that you can't move, but there is nothing actually attached to you directly.

The head frame is attached to your skull using 4 pins. Before they attach the frame, you have 4 injections of local anaesthetic at the points where the frame is attached to your head. Your head frame is then fixed into the radiotherapy machine while you are lying on the treatment couch. 

Before treatment you also have a planning CT scan.

The radiotherapy room

Radiotherapy machines are very big. Some are fixed in one position, but others rotate around your body.  

Before you start treatment your radiographers explain what you'll see and hear. In some departments the treatment rooms have docks for you to plug in music players. So you can listen to your own music.

Photo of a linear accelerator

During your treatment

To have treatment you lie on the treatment table. The radiographer attaches your mask or head into the scanner or radiotherapy machine. They leave the room before your treatment starts.

You need to lie very still. The machine makes whirring and beeping sounds. You can't feel the radiotherapy when you have the treatment. 

Your radiographers watch and listen to you on a CCTV screen in the next room. Tell them if you need to move or want the machine to stop.

There may be a small delay while the radiographers take pictures of the tumour and compare them to your planning CT scan. The couch might move as they adjust your position.
 

You won't be radioactive

External radiotherapy doesn't make you radioactive. It's safe to be with other people throughout your course of treatment, including pregnant women and children.

Travelling to radiotherapy appointments

Tell the radiotherapy department staff if you prefer treatment at a particular time of day. They can try to arrange this.

Car parking can be difficult at hospitals. It’s worth asking the radiotherapy unit staff:

  • if they can give you a hospital parking permit
  • about discounted parking rates
  • where you can get help with travel fares
  • for tips on free places to park nearby

If you have no other way to get to the hospital, the radiotherapy staff might be able to arrange transport for you. But it might not always be at convenient times. Some hospitals have their own drivers or can arrange ambulances. Some charities offer hospital transport.

Side effects

Radiotherapy for a brian tumour can make you feel tired. There are other possible side effects.

Information and help

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