Find out what to expect before having surgery, including the tests you might have, the people you will meet and the consent form you'll need to sign.
What to expect
What your surgery will be like depends on a number of factors including:
- your type of cancer
- the type of operation you are having
- your general health
You might have surgery as an outpatient (day surgery) or stay one or more nights in hospital as an inpatient. It depends on the type of surgery you are having. Staying in hospital means that the team can keep an eye on you and monitor your recovery.
You may be told that you need to have surgery but then have to wait a few weeks for the operation. This can be a difficult time emotionally. But it does give you time to prepare yourself and have any tests you may need beforehand. It is also a chance to sort things out at home or work, should you need to.
You might feel anxious before an operation. But the more you know about what is going to happen, the less frightening it will seem.
Tips for coping with surgery
- Ask your doctors and nurses lots of questions about the operation.
- Be sure about what you need to do before the operation and what to expect afterwards.
- Get things ready to go in to hospital, such as nightwear, books, music, magazines, etc.
- Try relaxation techniques – these can be good if you are nervous.
- Try to stop smoking because it helps your recovery if you do.
Some things need to be done before surgery, including:
- having tests to check your general health
- meeting some of the people who will look after you, including the surgeon
- signing the consent form for the operation
This may all happen at a pre assessment clinic, up to 2 weeks before your operation. This allows time to add nutritional drinks to your diet if you need to build yourself up before surgery. You might also need to stop taking some medicines, such as anticoagulants which thin the blood.
Sometimes you only prepare for the operation once you are admitted to hospital for your operation.
Most people are admitted on the morning of their operation or the day before.
Tests to check your general health
Before any operation you need to have some tests to make sure you are well enough to have the anaesthetic and operation. These may include:
Blood tests include a full blood count to check that you are able to fight infections, that your blood can clot normally, and that you aren’t anaemic. Blood tests can also check how well your liver and kidneys are working. You might have your blood type checked in case you need a transfusion during the operation.
Your doctor or nurse may ask you to give a urine sample so that they can check that your kidneys are working normally, and to check for infections.
A chest x-ray shows how well your lungs are working and checks for infections.
An electrocardiogram checks how well your heart is working. This is the test where you have small sticky pads put on your chest that are attached to wires. It shows your heart beat as an electrical trace on a screen.
You might need other scans or x-rays to check the position and size of your cancer, and whether it has spread. Exactly what you need depends on the type of cancer you have.
Meeting the people who will care for you
Before your operation, a member of the surgical team will talk to you in detail about your operation.
You'll also meet the anaesthetist. They'll examine you and ask questions about your medical history, and any operations you've had in the past. On the day of the operation, the anaesthetist gives you the anaesthetic and looks after you during the operation. They can also help with your pain control afterwards.
You might also meet a physiotherapist. They can assess how well you move around, and let the doctors know if there is anything that could affect your recovery.
The physiotherapist or a nurse can teach you the breathing and leg exercises you may need to do after your operation. The exercises reduce your risk of chest infections and blood clots that can develop if you don’t move around for a while.
Breathing and circulation exercises after surgery
Voice over: These exercises help prevent you developing a chest infection or blood clots in your legs after surgery. These problems are more likely when you are not moving around as you would normally.
You can do these breathing exercises while sitting up in a chair or in bed or whilst lying down.
Relax your shoulders and upper chest.
Take a slow, deep, comfortable breath in and hold for a couple of seconds, then slowly breathe out.
Repeat this 3 times.
You can start these breathing exercises as soon as you come round from your anaesthetic. You should try to do them every hour when awake until you are fully mobile.
If you need to cough support your wound with your arms a pillow or a rolled up towel.
Voiceover: If you are struggling to clear any phlegm, try a huff. This is where you breathe out in a short, sharp manner as if you were trying to steam up a mirror.
You should move about as soon as possible after your operation. But while you are not as mobile, try to keep your legs moving to encourage better circulation.
You can do these exercises in a bed or in a chair.
One foot at a time point your toes away from you then, pull your toes towards your chin. Try to do 10 of these on both feet at least 2 to 3 times an hour.
The next exercise is circling your ankles. One at a time circle your ankles, clockwise and then anticlockwise. Repeat this 10 times with each ankle 2 to 3 times an hour.
Signing the consent form
Before you have any operation you need to sign a consent form. This is a written agreement between you and the surgeon, saying that you give permission for them to do the operation.
Before you sign it your surgeon explains:
- why you need the operation
- whether you have any other treatment options
- what the aim of the surgery is
- how they will do the surgery
- any risks or complications
- possible side effects of the surgery and whether they are short or long term
You might also see a specialist nurse who can go over the details again, and answer your questions. Your surgeon or specialist nurse usually gives you written information about the operation.
Having a friend or family member with you can help you remember and understand what the surgeon or nurse says. You should only sign the consent form once you understand fully about the operation.