A stem cell or bone marrow transplant is an important treatment for some people with ALL.
Stem cells are very early cells in the bone marrow that develop into different types of blood cells. These are red and white blood cells and platelets.
People with ALL usually have a transplant using stem cells from a matching donor (allogeneic transplant). But in rare cases they might have their own stem cells (autologous transplant).
People might have a transplant for ALL because:
- they have leukaemia that is more likely to come back
- the leukaemia has come back (relapsed)
Matching donor cells
To be a donor you need to have stem cells that match the person you are donating to. To find this out, you have a blood test to look at HLA typing or tissue typing.
Staff in the laboratory look at the surface of your blood cells. They compare them to the surface of the blood cells of the person needing a transplant.
Everyone has their own set of proteins on the surface of their blood cells. The laboratory staff look for proteins called HLA markers and histocompatibility antigens. They check for 10 HLA markers. The result of this test shows how good the HLA match is between you and the person who needs the cells.
Donating stem cells or bone marrow to a relative
A brother or sister is most likely to be a match. There is a 1 in 4 chance of your cells matching. This is called a matched related donor (MRD) transplant. Anyone else in the family is unlikely to match. This can be very frustrating for relatives who are keen to help.
If you are a part match
Sometimes if your cells are a half (50%) match, you might still be able to donate stem cells or bone marrow to a relative. This is called a haploidentical transplant.
If you're not a match
You can't donate stem cells or bone marrow to your relative if you're not a match.
It's sometimes possible to get a match from someone outside of the family. This is called a matched unrelated donor. To find a matched unrelated donor, it's usually necessary to search large numbers of people whose tissue type has been tested. So doctors search national and international registers to try to find a match for your relative.
Being a donor for someone else
Even if you can't donate to your relative, you might be able to become a donor for someone else. You can do this by contacting one of the UK registers.
There are different donor registers in the UK. These work with each other and with international registers to match donors with people who need stem cells. This helps doctors find donors for their patients as quickly as possible from anywhere in the world.
How to register
Each registry has specific health criteria and list medical conditions that might prevent you from donating. Check their website for this information. Once registered, the organisation will contact you if you are a match for someone who needs stem cells or bone marrow.
British Bone Marrow Registry (BBMR)
To register with the BBMR, you must be a blood donor. BBMR would like to register those groups they are particularly short of on their register. This includes men between the ages of 17 and 40. And women aged between 17 and 40 who are from Black, Asian, and minority ethnicities and mixed ethnicity backgrounds.
You have a blood test for tissue typing. Your details are kept on file until you are 60.
You must be aged between 16 and 30 to register with Anthony Nolan. You have a cheek swab to test for tissue typing. Your details are kept on the register until you are 60.
Welsh Bone Marrow Donor Registry
You must be aged between 17 and 30 and your details are kept on the register until you are 60. You have a blood test for tissue typing.
To register you must be aged between 17 and 55. You have a cheek swab for tissue typing. Your details stay on the register until your 61st birthday.