Who can donate stem cells or bone marrow for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL)?

A stem cell or bone marrow transplant is an important treatment for some people with ALL. 

Stem cells are very early cells in the bone marrow that develop into different types of blood cells. These are red and white blood cells and platelets. 

People with ALL usually have a transplant using stem cells from a matching donor (allogeneic transplant). But in rare cases they might have their own stem cells (autologous transplant).

People might have a transplant for ALL because:

  • they have leukaemia that is more likely to come back
  • the leukaemia has come back (relapsed)

Matching donor cells

To be a donor you need to have stem cells that match the person you are donating to. To find this out, you have a blood test to look at HLA typing or tissue typing. 

Staff in the laboratory look at the surface of your blood cells. They compare them to the surface of the blood cells of the person needing a transplant. 

Everyone has their own set of proteins on the surface of their blood cells. The laboratory staff look for proteins called HLA markers and histocompatibility antigens. They check for 10 HLA markers. The result of this test shows how good the HLA match is between you and the person who needs the cells.

Donating stem cells or bone marrow to a relative

A brother or sister is most likely to be a match. There is a 1 in 4 chance of your cells matching. This is called a matched related donor (MRD) transplant. Anyone else in the family is unlikely to match. This can be very frustrating for relatives who are keen to help.

If you are a part match

Sometimes if your cells are a half (50%) match, you might still be able to donate stem cells or bone marrow to a relative. This is called a haploidentical transplant. 

If you're not a match

You can't donate stem cells or bone marrow to your relative if you're not a match. 

It's sometimes possible to get a match from someone outside of the family. This is called a matched unrelated donor. To find a matched unrelated donor, it's usually necessary to search large numbers of people whose tissue type has been tested. So doctors search national and international registers to try to find a match for your relative.

Being a donor for someone else

Even if you can't donate to your relative, you might be able to become a donor for someone else. You can do this by contacting one of the UK registers.

There are different donor registers in the UK. These work with each other and with international registers to match donors with people who need stem cells. This helps doctors find donors for their patients as quickly as possible from anywhere in the world.

How to register

Each registry has specific health criteria and list medical conditions that might prevent you from donating. Check their website for this information. Once registered, the organisation will contact you if you are a match for someone who needs stem cells or bone marrow.

British Bone Marrow Registry (BBMR) 

To register with the BBMR, you must be a blood donor. BBMR would like to register those groups they are particularly short of on their register. This includes men between the ages of 17 and 40. And women aged between 17 and 40 who are from Black, Asian, and minority ethnicities and mixed ethnicity backgrounds.

You have a blood test for tissue typing. Your details are kept on file until you are 60.

Anthony Nolan 

You must be aged between 16 and 30 to register with Anthony Nolan. You have a cheek swab to test for tissue typing. Your details are kept on the register until you are 60. 

Welsh Bone Marrow Donor Registry 

You must be aged between 17 and 30 and your details are kept on the register until you are 60. You have a blood test for tissue typing.


To register you must be aged between 17 and 55. You have a cheek swab for tissue typing. Your details stay on the register until your 61st birthday. 

Last reviewed: 
20 Jul 2021
Next review due: 
20 Jul 2024
  • BSHI Guideline: HLA matching and donor selection for haematopoietic progenitor cell transplant
    A M Little and others
    International Journal of Immunogenetics, 2016. Volume 43, Issue 5, Pages 263 to 286

  • Guidelines for the detection and characterisation of clinically relevant antibodies in allotransplantation.
    British Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics and the British Transplantation Society, September 2014

  • The European Blood and Marrow Transplantation Textbook for Nurses
    M Kenyon and A Babic
    Springer Open, 2018

  • The EBMT Handbook. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapies
    E Carreras and others
    Springer Open, 2019

  • Selecting the Best Donor for Haploidentical Transplant: Impact of HLA, Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor Genotyping, and Other Clinical Variables
    S R Solomon and others
    Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, 2018. Volume 24, Issue 4, Pages 789 to 798

  • The information on this page is based on literature searches and specialist checking. We used many references and there are too many to list here. Please contact patientinformation@cancer.org.uk with details of the particular issue you are interested in if you need additional references for this information.