Anal cancer incidence statistics

Cases

New cases of anal cancer, 2015, UK

 

Proportion of all cases

Percentage anal cancer is of total cancer cases, 2015, UK

 

Age

Peak rate of anal cancer cases, 2013-2015, UK

Trend over time

Change in anal cancer incidence rates since the early 1990s, UK

Anal cancer is not among the 20 most common cancers in the UK, accounting for less than 1% of all new cancer cases (2015).[1-4]

In males in the UK, anal cancer is not among the 20 most common cancers (less than 1% of all new male cancer cases). In females in the UK it is not among the 20 most common cancers (less than 1% of all new female cancer cases).

33% of anal cancer cases in the UK are in males, and 67% are in females.

Anal cancer incidence rates (European age-standardised (AS) rates Open a glossary item) for persons are significantly lower than the UK average in Northern Ireland, and similar to the UK average in all other UK constituent countries.

Anal Cancer (C21), Number of New Cases, Crude and European Age-Standardised (AS) Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2015

  England Scotland Wales Northern Ireland UK
Male Cases 403 49 26 6 484
Crude Rate 1.5 1.9 1.7 0.7 1.5
AS Rate 1.7 2.0 1.7 0.8 1.7
AS Rate - 95% LCI 1.6 1.4 1.1 0.2 1.6
AS Rate - 95% UCI 1.9 2.5 2.4 1.4 1.9
Female Cases 853 94 37 16 1,000
Crude Rate 3.1 3.4 2.4 1.7 3.0
AS Rate 3.2 3.4 2.2 1.9 3.1
AS Rate - 95% LCI 3.0 2.7 1.5 1.0 2.9
AS Rate - 95% UCI 3.4 4.0 2.9 2.8 3.3
Persons Cases 1,256 143 63 22 1,484
Crude Rate 2.3 2.7 2.0 1.2 2.3
AS Rate 2.5 2.7 2.0 1.4 2.4
AS Rate - 95% LCI 2.3 2.3 1.5 0.8 2.3
AS Rate - 95% UCI 2.6 3.2 2.5 2.0 2.6

95% LCL and 95% UCL are the 95% lower and upper confidence limits Open a glossary item  around the AS Rate Open a glossary item
 

For anal cancer, like most cancer types, differences between countries largely reflect risk factor prevalence in years past.

Anal cancer is one of the few non-sex-specific cancer types which is more common in women than men, this is probably due to sex differences in risk factor prevalence.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2017. Similar data can be found here: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, August 2017. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales on request, October 2017. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, July 2017. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.

About this data

Data is for UK, 2015, ICD-10 C21.

Last reviewed:

Anal cancer incidence is strongly related to age, with the highest incidence rates being in older people. In the UK in 2013-2015, on average each year around a quarter (26%) of new cases were in people aged 75 and over.[1-4

Age-specific incidence rates rise sharply from around age 35-39, slightly more rapidly for females than males. The highest rates are in the 85 to 89 age group for males and the 90+ age group for females.

Incidence rates are significantly lower in males than females in a number of (mainly older) age groups. The gap is widest at age 60 to 64, when the age-specific incidence rate is 2.4 times lower in males than females.

Anal Cancer (C21), Average Number of New Cases per Year and Age-Specific Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2013-2015

95% LCL and 95% UCL are the 95% lower and upper confidence limits Open a glossary item  around the AS Rate Open a glossary item
 

For anal cancer, like most cancer types, incidence increases with age. This largely reflects cell DNA damage accumulating over time. Damage can result from biological processes or from exposure to risk factors. A drop or plateau in incidence in the oldest age groups often indicates reduced diagnostic activity perhaps due to general ill health.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2017. Similar data can be found here: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, August 2017. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales on request, October 2017. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, July 2017. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.

About this data

Data is for UK, 2013-2015, ICD-10 C21.

Last reviewed:

Anal cancer European age-standardised (AS) Open a glossary item incidence rates for males and females combined increased by 63% in the UK between 1993-1995 and 2013-2015.[1-4] The increase was larger in females than in males.

For males, anal cancer AS incidence rates in the UK increased by 20% between 1993-1995 and 2013-2015. For females, anal cancer AS incidence rates in the UK increased by 99% between 1993-1995 and 2013-2015.

Over the last decade in the UK (between 2003-2005 and 2013-2015), anal cancer AS incidence rates for males and females combined increased by 34%.[1-4] In males AS incidence rates remained stable, and in females rates increased by 52%.

Anal Cancer (C21), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, UK, 1993-2015

Anal cancer incidence rates have increased overall in some broad adult age groups in males in the UK since the early 1990s, but have remained stable in others.[1-4] Rates in 25-49s have increased by 70%, in 50-59s have increased by 78%, in 60-69s have increased by 31%, in 70-79s have remained stable, and in 80+s have remained stable.

Anal Cancer (C21), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, By Age, Males, UK, 1993-2015

Anal cancer incidence rates have increased overall in all broad adult age groups in females in the UK since the early 1990s.[1-4] Rates in 25-49s have increased by 147%, in 50-59s have increased by 198%, in 60-69s have increased by 156%, in 70-79s have increased by 32%, and in 80+s have increased by 45%.

Anal Cancer (C21), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, By Age, Females, UK, 1993-2015

For anal cancer, like most cancer types, incidence trends largely reflect changing prevalence of risk factors and improvements in diagnosis and data recording. Recent incidence trends are influenced by risk factor prevalence in years past, and trends by age group reflect risk factor exposure in birth cohorts.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2017. Similar data can be found here: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, August 2017. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales on request, October 2017. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, July 2017. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.

About this data

Data is for UK, 1993-2015, ICD-10 C21.

Last reviewed:

Anal cancer incidence rates are projected to rise by 43% in the UK between 2014 and 2035, to 4 cases per 100,000 people by 2035.[1] This includes a smaller increase for males than for females.

For males, anal cancer European age-standardised (AS) Open a glossary item incidence rates in the UK are projected to rise by 18% between 2014 and 2035, to 2 cases per 100,000 by 2035.[1] For females, rates are projected to rise by 56% between 2014 and 2035, to 5 cases per 100,000 by 2035.[1]

Anal cancer (C21), Observed and Projected Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, by Sex, UK, 1979-2035

 

It is projected that 2,433 cases of anal cancer (685 in males, 1,749 in females) will be diagnosed in the UK in 2035.

References

  1. Smittenaar CR, Petersen KA, Stewart K, Moitt N. Cancer Incidence and Mortality Projections in the UK Until 2035. Brit J Cancer 2016.

About this data

Data is for: UK, 1979-2014 (observed), 2015-2035 (projected), ICD-10 C21

Projections are based on observed incidence and mortality rates and therefore implicitly include changes in cancer risk factors, diagnosis and treatment. It is not possible to assess the statistical significance of changes between 2014 (observed) and 2035 (projected) figures. Confidence intervals are not calculated for the projected figures. Projections are by their nature uncertain because unexpected events in future could change the trend. It is not sensible to calculate a boundary of uncertainty around these already uncertain point estimates. Changes are described as "increase" or "decrease" if there is any difference between the point estimates.

More on projections methodology

Last reviewed:

The lifetime risk of developing anal cancer is around 1 in 795 for men and around 1 in 470 for women, in 2012 in the UK.[1]

The lifetime risk for anal cancer has been calculated on the assumption that the possibility of having more than one diagnosis of anal cancer over the course of a lifetime is very low (‘Current Probability’ method).[2]

References

  1. Lifetime risk estimates calculated by the Statistical Information Team at Cancer Research UK. Based on data provided by the Office of National Statistics, ISD Scotland, the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit and the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry, on request, December 2013 to July 2014.
  2. Esteve J, Benhamou E and Raymond L. Descriptive epidemiology. IARC Scientific Publications No.128, Lyon, International Agency for Research on Cancer, pp 67-68 1994.

About this data

Data is for UK, 2010-2012, ICD-10 C21

Lifetime risk estimates were calculated using incidence, mortality, population and all-cause mortality data for 2010-2012 due to the small number of cases.

Last reviewed:

There is evidence for an association between anal cancer incidence and deprivation for both males and females in England.[1] England-wide data for 2006-2010 show European age-standardised Open a glossary item incidence rates incidence rates are 82% higher for males living in the most deprived areas compared with the least deprived, and 53% higher for females.[1]

Anal Cancer (C21), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates by Deprivation Quintile, England, 2006-2010

The estimated deprivation gradient in anal cancer incidence between people living in the most and least deprived areas in England has not changed in the period 1996-2010.[1] It has been estimated that there would have been around 150 fewer cancer cases each year in England during 2006-2010 if all people experienced the same incidence rates as the least deprived.[1

References

  1. Cancer Research UK and National Cancer Intelligence Network. Cancer by deprivation in England: Incidence, 1996-2010, Mortality, 1997-2011. London: NCIN; 2014.

About this data

Data is for UK, 2006-2010, ICD-10 C21

Deprivation gradient statistics were calculated using incidence data for 2006-2010. The deprivation quintiles were calculated using the Income domain scores from the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) from the following years: 2004, 2007 and 2010. Full details on the data and methodology can be found in the Cancer by Deprivation in England NCIN  report.

Last reviewed:

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