Anal cancer incidence statistics

Cases

New cases of anal cancer, 2014, UK

 

Proportion of all cases

Percentage anal cancer is of total cancer cases, 2014, UK

 

Age

Peak rate of anal cancer cases, 2012-2014, UK

Trend since 1970s

Anal cancer incidence rates have increased since the late 1970s, GB

 

Anal cancer accounts for less than 1% of all new cases in the UK (2014), accounting for less than 1% of all male cases, and less than 1% of all female cases.[1-4]

In 2014, there were 1,307 new cases of anal cancer in the UK: 434 (33%) in males and 873 (67%) in females, giving a male:female ratio of around 5:10.[1-4] The crude incidence rate Open a glossary item shows that there is 1 new anal cancer case for every 100,000 males in the UK, and 3 for every 100,000 females.

The European age-standardised incidence rate Open a glossary item (AS rate) does not differ significantly between the constituent countries of the UK for either sex.[1-4]

Anal Cancer (C21), Number of New Cases, Crude and European Age-Standardised (AS) Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2014

England Wales Scotland Northern Ireland UK
Male Cases 356 27 39 12 434
Crude Rate 1.3 1.8 1.5 1.3 1.4
AS Rate 1.5 1.9 1.6 1.8 1.5
AS Rate - 95% LCL 1.4 1.2 1.1 0.8 1.4
AS Rate - 95% UCL 1.7 2.7 2.1 2.8 1.7
Female Cases 725 55 75 18 873
Crude Rate 2.6 3.5 2.7 1.9 2.7
AS Rate 2.7 3.3 2.7 2.1 2.7
AS Rate - 95% LCL 2.5 2.5 2.1 1.2 2.6
AS Rate - 95% UCL 2.9 4.2 3.3 3.1 2.9
Persons Cases 1,081 82 114 30 1,307
Crude Rate 2.0 2.7 2.1 1.6 2.0
AS Rate 2.2 2.7 2.2 1.9 2.2
AS Rate - 95% LCL 2.0 2.1 1.8 1.2 2.1
AS Rate - 95% UCL 2.3 3.2 2.6 2.6 2.3

95% LCL and 95% UCL are the 95% lower and upper confidence limits Open a glossary item around the AS Rate Open a glossary item

For anal cancer, like most cancer types, differences between countries largely reflect risk factor prevalence in years past. Anal cancer is one of the few non-sex-specific cancer types which more common in women than men, this is probably due to sex differences in risk factor prevalence.[5]

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.

About this data

Data is for: UK, 2014, ICD-10 C21

Last reviewed:

Anal cancer incidence is strongly related to age, with the highest incidence rates generally being in older males and females. In the UK in 2012-2014, on average each year more than half (52%) of cases were diagnosed in people aged 65 and over.[1-4]

Age-specific incidence rates rise sharply from around age 35-39, slightly more rapidly for females than males with the highest rates in the 85-89 age group for both males and females. Incidence rates are higher for females than males in most age groups aged 40-44 and over, and this gap is widest at age 70 to 74, when the male:female ratio of age-specific incidence rates (to account for the different proportions of males to females in each age group) is around 7:10.[1-4]

Anal Cancer (C21), Average Number of New Cases per Year and Age-Specific Incidence Rates per 100,000 population, UK, 2012-2014

For anal cancer, like most cancer types, incidence increases with age. This largely reflects cell DNA damage accumulating over time. Damage can result from biological processes or from exposure to risk factors. A drop or plateau in incidence in the oldest age groups often indicates reduced diagnostic activity perhaps due to general ill health.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.

About this data

Data is for UK, 2012-2014, ICD-10 C21

Last reviewed:

Anal cancer incidence rates have increased by 130% in Great Britain since the late 1970s.[1-3] This includes a larger overall increase for females than for males. 

For males, European age-standardised (AS) Open a glossary item incidence rates increased by 65% between 1979-1981 and 2011-2013. For females, rates increased by 191% in this period.

Anal Cancer (C21), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, Great Britain, 1979-2013

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

Over the last decade in the UK (between 2002-2004 and 2011-2013), anal cancer AS incidence rates have increased by 30% for males and females combined, though this includes an increase of 46% for females, and stable rates for males.[1-4]

Anal Cancer (C21), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, UK, 1993-2013

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

Anal cancer incidence trends probably reflect changing prevalence of risk factors, with recent incidence trends influenced by risk factor prevalence in years past.

Anal cancer incidence rates have increased overall for males in most of the broad age groups in Great Britain since the 1970s, with particularly large increases in younger males.[1-3] The largest increase has been in males aged 25-49, with rates increasing by 189% between 1979-1981 and 2011-2013. In the 80+ age group, rates have  fluctuated but overall remained stable since the late 1970s.

Anal Cancer (C21), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, by Age, Males, Great Britain, 1979-2013

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

As with males, anal cancer incidence rates have increased overall for females in all of the broad age groups in females in Great Britain since the late 1970s, with particularly large increases in younger females.[1-3] The largest increase has also been in females aged 25-49, with rates increasing more than six-fold (541% increase) between 1979-1981 and 2011-2013.

Anal Cancer (C21), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, by Age, Females, Great Britain, 1979-2013

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, February 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=59080.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, March 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.
Last reviewed:

Anal cancer incidence rates are projected to rise by 43% in the UK between 2014 and 2035, to 4 cases per 100,000 people by 2035.[1] This includes a smaller increase for males than for females.

For males, anal cancer European age-standardised (AS) Open a glossary item incidence rates in the UK are projected to rise by 18% between 2014 and 2035, to 2 cases per 100,000 by 2035.[1] For females, rates are projected to rise by 56% between 2014 and 2035, to 5 cases per 100,000 by 2035.[1]

Anal cancer (C21), Observed and Projected Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, by Sex, UK, 1979-2035

 

It is projected that 2,433 cases of anal cancer (685 in males, 1,749 in females) will be diagnosed in the UK in 2035.

References

  1. Smittenaar CR, Petersen KA, Stewart K, Moitt N. Cancer Incidence and Mortality Projections in the UK Until 2035. Brit J Cancer 2016.

About this data

Data is for: UK, 1979-2014 (observed), 2015-2035 (projected), ICD-10 C21

Projections are based on observed incidence and mortality rates and therefore implicitly include changes in cancer risk factors, diagnosis and treatment. It is not possible to assess the statistical significance of changes between 2014 (observed) and 2035 (projected) figures. Confidence intervals are not calculated for the projected figures. Projections are by their nature uncertain because unexpected events in future could change the trend. It is not sensible to calculate a boundary of uncertainty around these already uncertain point estimates. Changes are described as "increase" or "decrease" if there is any difference between the point estimates.

More on projections methodology

Last reviewed:

The lifetime risk of developing anal cancer is around 1 in 795 for men and around 1 in 470 for women, in 2012 in the UK.[1]

The lifetime risk for anal cancer has been calculated on the assumption that the possibility of having more than one diagnosis of anal cancer over the course of a lifetime is very low (‘Current Probability’ method).[2]

References

  1. Lifetime risk estimates calculated by the Statistical Information Team at Cancer Research UK. Based on data provided by the Office of National Statistics, ISD Scotland, the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit and the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry, on request, December 2013 to July 2014.
  2. Esteve J, Benhamou E and Raymond L. Descriptive epidemiology. IARC Scientific Publications No.128, Lyon, International Agency for Research on Cancer, pp 67-68 1994.
Last reviewed:

There is evidence for an association between anal cancer incidence and deprivation for both males and females in England.[1] England-wide data for 2006-2010 show European age-standardised Open a glossary item incidence rates incidence rates are 82% higher for males living in the most deprived areas compared with the least deprived, and 53% higher for females.[1]

Anal Cancer (C21), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates by Deprivation Quintile, England, 2006-2010

The estimated deprivation gradient in anal cancer incidence between people living in the most and least deprived areas in England has not changed in the period 1996-2010.[1] It has been estimated that there would have been around 150 fewer cancer cases each year in England during 2006-2010 if all people experienced the same incidence rates as the least deprived.[1

Last reviewed:

Cancer Statistics Explained

See information and explanations on terminology used for statistics and reporting of cancer, and the methods used to calculate some of our statistics.

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