Further tests for thyroid cancer
This page tells you about tests you may have if you are diagnosed with thyroid cancer. You can find the following information
Further tests for thyroid cancer
If tests show you have thyroid cancer, your specialist will ask you to have further tests to see how big the cancer is and whether it has spread. This will help your doctor to decide which treatment you need. Your doctor will examine your neck and nearby areas to see if there are any enlarged lymph nodes that may contain cancer cells from your thyroid cancer. Further tests may include CT or MRI scans. Sometimes, thyroid scans (using a very small amount of radioactive iodine) or PET scans are used after treatment. They can see if any cancer cells are left.
After the tests
You will be asked to go back to the hospital when your test results have come through. This is bound to take a little time, even if only a day or two. You may feel very anxious while you are waiting for results. It may help to talk to your clinical nurse specialist (CNS), or a close friend or relative about how you are feeling. Or you may want to contact a cancer support group to talk to someone who has been through a similar experience.
You can view and print the quick guides for all the pages in the diagnosing thyroid cancer section.
Further tests will help your doctor to decide on the treatment you need. If you have thyroid cancer, your doctor needs to check how large the cancer is and whether it has spread outside the thyroid gland. Your doctor will examine your neck and nearby areas to see if there are any enlarged lymph nodes that may contain cancer cells from your thyroid cancer.
You may have scans of your neck and chest to see if there are any signs of thyroid cancer elsewhere in your body. CT scans can be used to look for cancer anywhere else in the body, especially the lungs. MRI scans can pick up cancer that has spread into the soft tissues, such as in the neck. If you have been diagnosed with medullary thyroid cancer, you may have a CT or MRI of your abdomen as well.
You may hear this thyroid scan called a radioisotope scan, an isotope scan or a gamma camera scan. It is used sometimes as a follow up test after surgery to remove the thyroid gland.
The doctors can use several different types of radioactive materials (radionuclides) to do this scan, depending on what information they need from the scan. The most common radionuclide used is a form of radioactive iodine.
Before the scan the doctors give you the radioactive iodine. You either have it as an injection into a vein in your arm, or you swallow it as a liquid or capsule. If you have an injection, you have the scan about an hour later. If you take it by mouth, you may wait several hours or up to several days to have the scan. This gives the iodine time to reach the areas in your body that it needs to. For some radioisotope thyroid scans, the doctor may give you an intramuscular injection 2 days before you take the iodine. The injection is a hormone to stimulate uptake of iodine by the thyroid cells. Your doctor will tell you if you need this.
When you return to have the scan, you will be asked to lie on the scanner couch. The gamma camera is put over your neck for a minute or two.
Thyroid cells are better at picking up iodine than any other cells in the body. So the iodine collects in your thyroid cells and the radiation can be seen on your scan. Some thyroid cancer cells may also pick up the iodine, but not as well as the normal thyroid cells. So thyroid cancers may show up on the scan as areas with no radiation (cold spots) inside the thyroid gland. Or they may show up as areas with high radiation (hot spots) outside the thyroid gland, if the cancer has spread. So this type of scan may also be used to check whether any cancer cells are left in other parts of the body after radioactive iodine treatment for papillary or follicular thyroid cancer.
The test is painless. The amount of radiation is so very small that it will not harm you. But the doctors may ask you to take some simple precautions for a few days after your scan. This is to reduce exposing others to radiation as you may be mildly radioactive for a short period of time.
You will be asked to go back to the hospital when your test results have come through. This is bound to take a little time. You may feel very anxious while you are waiting for the results. At the hospital you will usually have a clinical nurse specialist (CNS) who can answer any questions and support you. It may help to talk to a close friend or relative about how you feel. Or you may want to contact a cancer support group to talk to someone who has been through a similar experience.
If you want to find people to share experiences with on line, you could use CancerChat, our online forum. This is a free service that aims to put people with similar medical conditions in touch with each other.
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