Read about the symptoms of testicular cancer and when you should see your doctor.
Testicular cancer symptoms can be similar to other conditions that affect the testicles, such as infections.
A lump or swelling in the testicle
A lump or swelling in part of one testicle is the most common symptom of a testicular cancer. It can be as small as a pea but may be much larger.
You may notice an unusual difference between one testicle and the other.
Most testicular lumps are not cancer. Fewer than 4 in every 100 lumps (4%) are cancer.
A heavy scrotum
Your scrotum may feel heavy.Your doctor may shine a strong light through your testicle. This test is called transillumination:
- light shows through a harmless, fluid filled cyst (called a hydrocoele)
- light can't show through a cancer, which is a solid lump
Discomfort or pain in a testicle or the scrotum
Testicular cancer is not usually painful. But for about 1 in 5 men (20%) with testicular cancer a sharp pain in the testicle or scrotum is the first symptom.
Less common symptoms
If the cancer has spread to lymph glands
Sometimes testicular cancer cells can spread into lymph glands at the back of the tummy (abdomen). This can cause backache or a dull ache in the lower tummy. Your doctor may call these lymph glands the para aortic or retro peritoneal lymph glands.
Sometimes testicular cancer spreads into lymph glands lower down, such as the pelvic lymph glands.
If testicular cancer has spread to lymph glands in other parts of the body you might feel lumps there, such as around the collarbone or in the neck
If the cancer has spread to the lungs
Sometimes testicular cancer spreads to the lungs. It rarely spreads to other organs in the body. If it has spread to the lungs you may have a cough or feel breathless.
Testicular cancer can usually be cured, even if it has spread when it is diagnosed.
Symptoms due to hormones
Many testicular cancers make hormones that can be detected in blood tests. Occasionally, men with testicular cancer have tender or swollen breasts because of these hormones.The cells can also spread to lymph nodes in the centre of your chest between the lungs – in an area called the mediastinum. If this happens you could have:
- a cough
- difficulty breathing
- difficulty swallowing
- a swelling in your chest
When to see your doctor
You should see your doctor if you have:
- an unusual lump or swelling in part of one testicle
- a sharp pain in the testicle or scrotum
- a heavy scrotum
Your symptoms are unlikely to be cancer but it's important to get them checked by a doctor.