Find out about how your doctor decides which treatment you need for melanoma skin cancer, the types of treatment you might have and treatment by stage.
Deciding which treatment you need
Your specialist will be part of a team of health professionals who work together with you to decide on the best treatment for you. This team is called the multidisciplinary team (MDT).
There are 2 levels of MDT for melanoma and other skin cancers. They are the Local Hospital Skin Cancer Multidisciplinary Team (LSMDT) and a Specialist Skin Cancer Multidisciplinary team (SSMDT).
LSMDTs are usually in cancer units in district general hospitals. SSMDTs are more likely to be in larger hospitals that have cancer centres, or plastic surgery centres. Everyone with suspected melanoma will see a member of one of these teams.
Your treatment depends on:
- where your cancer is
- how far it has grown or spread (the stage)
- your general health and level of fitness
The depth of the melanoma in the skin affects how likely it is to come back and whether it may spread. The doctors use this information to diagnose what stage melanoma you have.
Your doctor might ask you to choose whether you have certain tests or treatments including:
- tests to check your lymph nodes (sentinel node biopsy)
- surgery to remove your lymph nodes, if the sentinel node biopsy shows they contain melanoma
To help you decide, the doctor will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the tests and treatments with you. They can help you decide what to do.
The main treatment for melanoma that hasn't spread is surgery.
If your melanoma has spread, the main treatments are:
- biological therapy
Treatment by stage
Melanoma in situ (stage 0)
Surgery is the main treatment. Doctors remove the abnormal mole and a small area of surrounding skin. You may need a second operation to remove a larger area of healthy tissue around where the melanoma in situ was. This is called a wide local excision. As long as the doctors are sure they removed enough tissue, this is all the treatment you need.
Surgery can cause scarring and some people may not be well enough to have an operation. Instead of surgery, you might have treatment with a cream called imiquimod. You put imiquimod on the affected area, over a period of weeks.
Stage 1 and 2
Surgery is the main treatment. Doctors remove the abnormal mole and a small area of surrounding skin. You usually have a second operation to remove a larger area of healthy tissue around where the melanoma in situ was. This is called a wide local excision.
For stage 1A melanoma, if your doctors are sure that they removed enough tissue, this is all the treatment you need.
For stage 1B and stage 2 melanoma, your doctor might offer you a test to check your lymph nodes. You can choose whether to have this test. The test is called a sentinel lymph node biopsy and you usually have it under a general anaesthetic.
You have surgery to remove the melanoma. Then you have a wide local excision to remove more tissue in the area where the melanoma was.
If your melanoma has spread to the lymph nodes, you might need surgery to remove all of the lymph nodes in the area near the melanoma. This operation is called a lymph node dissection.
For stage 3B or 3C melanoma, your doctor might offer you radiotherapy to the area where the surgeon removed the lymph nodes. The doctor carefully weighs up the benefits of giving radiotherapy against the side effects.
Your doctor might ask you to join a clinical trial looking at biological therapy. Doctors are doing trials to see if biological therapy helps to stop stage 3 melanoma from coming back or spreading. You only have it for stage 3 melanoma as part of a clinical trial.
If you have melanoma between the main melanoma and nearby lymph nodes (in-transit metastases) you usually have surgery. If this is not suitable for you, you might have one of the following:
- chemotherapy directly into the leg or arm where the melanoma is (known as isolated limb infusion or isolated limb perfusion)
- chemotherapy combined with an electric current (electrochemotherapy)
- laser treatment using a carbon dioxide laser
- cream to put on the skin (such as imiquimod cream)
You might have one or more of the following treatments:
- biological therapy
You might have your treatment as part of a clinical trial.
Clinical trials to improve treatment
Your doctor might ask if you’d like to take part in a clinical trial. Doctors and researchers do trials to improve treatment by:
- making existing treatments better
- developing new treatments