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Care planning

People with terminal cancer can make decisions about their future care. They can also choose a person who could make decisions on their behalf.

Advance care planning

Your doctors and nurses might talk to you about advance care planning. This means making decisions about how you would like to be cared for if you become too ill to communicate your wishes in the future.

The doctor or nurse will write down your wishes. You can let them know at any time if these change. 

There is no set way to plan ahead. You might find it helpful to talk through what’s best with one of your healthcare team. You can also talk about it with someone you are close to. And you can include your family and friends in the discussions with your doctors and nurses if you want to.

Living wills, advance decisions and advance statements

Many people make a living will when they know that they are going to die.

This is in case a time comes when they can no longer make decisions or communicate their needs. You can only make a living will when you are mentally able. So you have to do it before you need it.

Having it prepared can be reassuring for your next of kin and the health professionals involved in your care. They will only be able to use it if you lose the ability to make decisions for yourself. For example, if you are unconscious.

There are two types of living will. These are an advance decision and an advance statement. 

  • An advance decision is a legal document listing any specific treatments that you want to refuse in the future.
  • An advance statement lists more general instructions and wishes about future medical care and treatment. It can cover personal preferences and religious instructions. It isn't legally binding but doctors and nurses should take account of it.

Advance decision to refuse treatment

An advance decision is a legal document. It provides a set of instructions for your doctors and nurses if you can’t make decisions yourself. It makes sure that everyone knows what treatments you don’t want or which treatments you would like to stop.

As long as you are able to make a decision, you can refuse treatment for any reason, even if this might lead to you dying. But you can't insist that doctors give you a particular treatment.

You can discuss your wishes and preferences with your doctor or nurse and your family. They can help you decide when your advance decision to refuse treatment would apply.

For example, you might decide that if your heart stopped beating, you wouldn’t want anyone to try and restart it.

Your wishes for future care

An advance statement allows you to write down your wishes and preferences for the last year or months of your life. You can state what treatment or care you would like to receive. It can also include non medical information, such as the type of food you prefer, or what your religious beliefs are.

The Preferred Priorities for Care (PPC) is a document you can use to write down your wishes. You decide what you want to include in the document, but there are a number of questions to prompt you. Most people need help from their doctor or nurse to fill in the form.

The PPC isn't a legal document. But if you become unable to make decisions about your care, the doctor will take into account what you have written.

Lasting Power of Attorney

You might want to think about who will manage your financial affairs if you become unable to do this for yourself. This is called Lasting Power of Attorney.

The person you choose to make decisions on your behalf is known as an attorney. You can have more than one attorney.

You can organise a Lasting Power of Attorney ahead of time, so that it’s ready when you need it.

You can also choose a person to make decisions on your behalf about your health and welfare. This is called a Health and Welfare Lasting Power of Attorney.

A health and welfare attorney can make decisions about your medical care, where you are cared for or what you eat.

The process to register a lasting Power of Attorney is slightly different in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. This is explained in the relevant government websites. 

Individual care planning and care pathways

Individual care planning is another term you may hear. It is also sometimes called your personal care plan.

It is more general than the advance care plan and covers all your care needs.

Your doctor or nurse will ask you questions to find out what care you need and what your wishes are. They will ask about physical symptoms such as pain, as well as your psychological, social and spiritual needs. This is called a holistic assessment.

Based on the assessment, they will write an individual care plan to reflect your wishes and care needs.

Ask your doctor or nurse to find out about your care plan.

Last reviewed: 
11 May 2016
  • Advance care planning: A guide for health and social care staff
    NHS National End of Life Care Programme, NHS / University of Nottingham, Oct 2008

  • Planning for your future Care. A guide
    NHS Improving Quality. September, 2014

  • Make, register or end a lasting power of attorney
    GOV.UK, January, 2017

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