Teenagers’ and young adults’ cancers survival statistics

Higher in females

Survival is higher in females than in males, 1991-2005, UK

More than 80% of teenagers and young adults diagnosed with cancer (including all benign/uncertain brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours) survive their disease for at least five years, according to data for the period 2001-2005 in the UK.[1] The survival rate is slightly higher in females (84%) than males (81%).

All Teenage and Young Adult Cancers, Five-Year Relative Survival Rates, Ages 15-24, UK, 1991-2005

1991-1995 1996-2000 2001-2005
Male Five-Year Relative Survival Rates 75.6 78.3 81.4
95% LCL* 74.2 77.0 80.2
95% UCL* 76.8 79.5 82.4
Female Five-Year Relative Survival Rates 79.4 81.5 84.4
95% LCL* 78.1 80.2 83.2
95% UCL* 80.7 82.7 85.4

95% LCL and 95% UCL are the 95% lower and upper confidence limits Open a glossary item around the five-year survival rate.

Survival for Northern Ireland is included from 1993 onwards.

All teenage and young adult cancers includes all invasive cancers excluding non-melanoma skin cancers (ICD-10 codes: C00-C97 excluding C44), and all benign/uncertain brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours (ICD-10 codes: D32-D33, D35.2-D35.4, D42-D43 and D44.3-D44.5, except for Northern Ireland for which ICD-10 codes: D32, D33.0-D33.4, D35.2-D35.4, D42, D43.0-D43.4 and D44.3-D44.5 are included).

Survival varies greatly according to the type of teenage and young adult cancer diagnosed. For the broad diagnostic groups (and cancer types where data are available), five-year relative survival for males aged 15-24 diagnosed during 2001-2005 in the UK ranges from 98% for thyroid carcinoma to 55% for soft tissue sarcomas.[1]

Teenage and Young Adult Cancer Diagnostic Groups and Cancer Types, Five-Year Relative Survival, Males, Ages 15-24, UK, 2001-2005

For females aged 15-24 diagnosed during 2001-2005 in the UK, five-year relative survival ranges from almost 100% for thyroid carcinoma to 56% for both acute myeloid leukaemia and bone tumours.[1] Some cancers show large survival differences between the sexes, but these are generally not statistically significant.

Teenage and Young Adult Cancer Diagnostic Groups and Cancer Types, Five-Year Relative Survival, Females, Ages 15-24, UK, 2001-2005

A comparison of five-year survival between children and 15-24 year-olds diagnosed during 2001-2005 in the UK has shown that teenagers and young adults often experience lower survival than children for many cancer types.[2]

The analysis showed five-year survival from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in teenagers and young adults was significantly lower than among children (61% and 89%, respectively). Furthermore, survival from ALL decreased with age, from 69% in 15-18 year-olds to 52% in 19-24 year-olds. A similar association with age was also seen for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), with five-year survival decreasing from 66% in children to 57% in teenagers and young adults.[2] Other diagnostic groups showing lower survival in teenagers and young adults compared with children include soft tissue sarcoma and bone tumours. Conversely, brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours showed higher survival in 15-24 year-olds compared with children. The differences between age-groups may be attributed to a range of factors, including variation in tumour subtype and/or biology and different treatment protocols. For ALL and AML, much of the survival differences were apparent after one year, suggesting that factors relating to diagnosis may also be important.[2]

References

  1. Five-year relative survival, ages 15-24, UK, 1991-2005 data were provided by North West Cancer Intelligence Service (NWCIS) on request in 2013. Similar data can be found here.
  2. National Cancer Intelligence Network (NCIN). Survival in Teenagers and Young Adults (TYA) with Cancer in the UK. London: NCIN, 2012.
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Survival from cancer in teenagers and young adults is improving overall. Five-year relative survival for all teenage and young adult cancers combined in males has increased from 76% in 1991-1995 to 81% in 2001-2005, and in females from 79% in 1991-1995 to 84% in 2001-2005.[1] Five-year survival has increased between 1991-1995 and 2001-2005 for lymphomas, germ cell tumours, malignant melanoma and leukaemias, but for carcinomas, brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours, bone tumours and soft tissue sarcoma it has remained similar. The greatest increase has been for leukaemia, with five-year survival in both sexes (together) increasing from 49% to 62% between 1991-1995 and 2001-2005.[1]

Teenage and Young Adult Cancers by Diagnostic Group, Five-Year Relative Survival Rates, Ages 15-24, UK, 1991-2005

Excluding non-melanoma skin cancer. Survival for Northern Ireland is included from 1993 onwards

All teenage and young adult cancers includes all invasive cancers excluding non-melanoma skin cancers (ICD-10 codes: C00-C97 excluding C44), and all benign/uncertain brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours (ICD-10 codes: D32-D33, D35.2-D35.4, D42-D43 and D44.3-D44.5, except for Northern Ireland for which ICD-10 codes: D32, D33.0-D33.4, D35.2-D35.4, D42, D43.0-D43.4 and D44.3-D44.5 are included).

References

  1. Five-year relative survival, ages 15-24, UK, 1991-2005 data were provided by North West Cancer Intelligence Service (NWCIS) on request in 2013.
Last reviewed:

A study of cancer survival in 13-24 year-olds for the period 1979-2003 in England showed survival was significantly poorer with increasing deprivation for leukaemias, head and neck carcinoma and bowel carcinoma.[1]

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In a European registry study, the five-year survival rate for teenagers and young adults with all cancers (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) in 23 European countries in 2000-2002 was 87%.[1] The survival rate was lower in males than females, and was generally highest in the Northern European countries studied, and lowest in the Eastern European countries. Five-year survival ranged from 84% in Northern Ireland to 92% in Iceland, although neither rates were significantly different from the European average. In contrast, the overall five-year survival rate for England, while slightly higher than that for Northern Ireland, was significantly lower than the European average.[1]

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Cancer Statistics Explained

See information and explanations on terminology used for statistics and reporting of cancer, and the methods used to calculate some of our statistics.

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