Find out about clinical trials looking at treatments for lung cancer.
Stratified medicine means looking at large groups of cancer patients to try and find ways of predicting which treatments cancers are likely to respond to. It involves looking in detail at the cancer cells and their genetic make up. Researchers want to find out whether some treatments are more likely to work in cancers that have particular changes to their genes.
Cancer Research UK is looking at a number of new drugs to treat non small cell lung cancer. The treatments depend on changes in genes in the cancer cells.
The drugs being investigated in lung cancer include:
It takes time to develop new tests to find the genetic changes in cells. We have to make sure that any new test is sensitive at picking up any changes, and is accurate and reliable. It will be some time before more people can have treatment based on the genetic make up of their cancer.
Radiotherapy can help to control and reduce the symptoms of lung cancer. But it doesn’t work well for everyone. Researchers are looking at ways to improve it and reduce the side effects. This includes research into:
- predicting who will respond to radiotherapy before they start treatment
- who is at the most risk of side effects
- whether having radiotherapy to their chest after surgery helps prevent the cancer coming back
Researchers are looking at a newer form of radiotherapy called stereotactic body radiotherapy treatment (SBRT).
It’s different to standard radiotherapy because it directs radiotherapy beams at the cancer from different positions around the body. It gives a very high dose of radiation to the cancer while surrounding tissues receive a low dose. With this type of radiotherapy you have fewer sessions.
Chemotherapy is the main treatment for small cell lung cancer and is also commonly used for non small cell lung cancer. Research continues into improving the timing and doses of drugs used. And researchers also hope to find new combinations of drugs that might give better results.
Examples of chemotherapy being tested in trials in the UK include:
Researchers are also trying to combine different types of treatment in new ways to improve results. Some are combining chemotherapy with biological therapies in clinical trials to see if certain combinations work better at treating lung cancer.
A common problem with many cancers is that chemotherapy works well at first but then it stops working so well. Researchers are interested in finding out why chemotherapy can stop working.
Doctors can remove early lung cancer with surgery. There are 2 main ways to remove a lobe of the lung (lobectomy):
- open surgery, which means making a cut in the chest
- video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATs), which means making several smaller cuts in the chest
Surgeons currently use both types of surgery but they don’t know which works best.
A study is comparing these 2 types of surgery to find out:
- what patients think of keyhole and open surgery
- whether there are different side effects
- what the cost difference is
Biological therapies are drugs that change the way that cells work and they help the body control the growth of cancer. Some biological therapies seek out and destroy cancer cells. Other drugs help the body to attack the cancer.
Research has found that some biological therapy drugs can help to control advanced cancer for some time. Scientists are now looking at biological therapies:
- with radiotherapy
- with chemotherapy
- in cancer that has come back after a first treatment
Monoclonal antibodies are a type of biological therapy. They recognise abnormal proteins on cancer cells. They can:
- change how the cancer cell works
- take chemotherapy or radiation into the cancer cell to kill it
- make it easier for the immune system to recognise and kill cancer cells
Monoclonal antibodies that researchers are looking at for lung cancer include nivolumab and ipilimumab.
These are drugs that block proteins that help cells repair their DNA. Researchers are looking at the PARP inhibitor olaparib in people with lung cancer.
Vaccines are a newer way of treating cancer, which could make the immune system attack the cancer cells. A study is looking at using a vaccine and chemotherapy to treat people with advanced lung cancer.
Microwave treatment research
Doctors are looking into using microwave treatment for lung cancer. This is called microwave ablation. There is evidence from some studies that microwave treatment can help to control a cancer in the lung for a time. But there is no evidence at the moment that this procedure helps people to live longer or improves their quality of life.
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) assessed microwave treatment. They say that doctors can use it to treat patients with lung cancer. But they must explain that it is not clear how much it will help them and that we need more research.