Radiotherapy treatment can affect your skin making it go red or darker.
Effects of radiotherapy on the skin
Radiotherapy can make the skin go red or darker in the treatment area. Some people have no skin problems at all but others can have very sore skin. Whether or not you have a skin reaction depends on your own type of skin and the area being treated.
If you get a skin reaction it will be red (or darker in dark skinned people). It can also be sore, like a sunburn. It won't happen straight away but develops gradually after several sessions. Your radiographer looks out for these reactions. But you should also let them know if you feel any soreness.
If the skin gets very sore it might peel and blister in the treatment area. Skin reactions usually settle down two to four weeks after your treatment ends.
You might also get redness or darkening on the other side of your body to the treatment area. For example, you may have skin changes on your back if the front of the chest is being treated. This is because the skin can be affected in the area where the radiotherapy beam leaves the body (the radiotherapy exit site). Tell the radiotherapy unit staff if the exit site skin gets red or sore.
If the treatment areas get very sore your doctor might need to delay the radiotherapy for a while so the skin can recover.
Skin care during radiotherapy
Advice about skin care varies from one hospital to another. It is best to follow the instructions of your own treatment unit. The advice applies only to the treatment area or exit site area. You can treat the rest of your skin normally.
Usually the radiotherapy staff advise you to gently wash the area each day with mild, unperfumed soap and warm or cool water. You then gently pat the skin dry with a soft towel. Rubbing the skin can make it sore.
Don't use creams or dressings on the treatment area unless they are prescribed by your specialist or radiographer.
Don't use talcum powder because this can contain tiny metal particles that can make the soreness worse after radiotherapy.
Your nurses might put on special dressings after your treatment if the tumour is affecting your skin. Don't use sticky (adhesive) tape or dressings in the treatment area.
Other skin care tips when washing and shaving include:
- Don't rub the area too hard because this makes it sore.
- Don't use perfume or perfumed soaps, talcs or lotions on the area.
- Use a deodorant that is free of any metal (check with your radiographer).
- Try baby soap or liquid baby wash but check with the radiotherapy staff in your department first.
- Don't shave the area being treated.
- Men can use an electric trimmer instead of shaving.
Clothing during radiotherapy
During radiotherapy and for a while afterwards your skin may be sensitive. You may find it more comfortable if you follow this advice:
- Wear loose fitting clothes.
- Use clothes made of natural fibres.
- Avoid tight collars and ties if you've had radiotherapy to your neck.
- Avoid shoulder and bra straps – go without a bra, wear a crop top instead, or try a sports bra a size bigger than usual.
The treated area of skin is sensitive so try to avoid strong sun or cold winds.
As always, when exposed to the sun you should:
- use a high factor sunscreen
- wear a hat and long sleeved shirts
If you are having radiotherapy to the head or neck you can try wearing a hat or a dense weave silk or cotton scarf when you go outside. You can also try putting up the collar on your shirt or jacket.
If you like to swim, ask your radiotherapy specialist or radiographer if it is ok for you to swim. Chlorinated water might cause irritation in the treatment area.
Some doctors prefer you not to swim until your treatment is finished. If you have a bad skin reaction with broken skin, which is rare, you shouldn't swim until it is healed.
Long term side effects
You might find that the treatment area looks permanently tanned after your treatment has finished. This is a long term side effect but won't harm you. You can use make up to camouflage it if you like.
Later, you may appear to have very tiny broken veins in the treated area. This is a long term side effect of radiotherapy. It is called telangiectasia. Tiny veins grow in the treatment area and may show on the surface of your skin. You can cover this with camouflage make up.
Your GP can prescribe the camouflage make up. There are different colours for all skin tones. Some clinical nurse specialists can show you how to apply it.
Your consultant or GP can refer you to the Skin Camouflage Service run by Changing Faces. This free service teaches you how to apply the make up and creams and advises you on the best products to buy.
You can also get help from The British Association of Skin Camouflage (BASC).