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Radiofrequency ablation

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) uses heat made by radio waves to kill cancer cells.

What radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) uses heat made by radio waves to kill cancer cells. Radiofrequency is a type of electrical energy. Ablation means destroying completely.

You have RFA through a probe (electrode) that goes through your skin into the tumour. The electrical current from the probe heats the cancer cells to high temperatures which destroys them.

Doctors are still finding out more about:

  • which cancers it can treat
  • how well it works
  • what the side effects are

Who can have RFA

RFA is not usually the main treatment for cancer. You might have RFA alone, or in combination with other treatments, if you have:

  • primary liver cancer
  • secondary cancer in the liver
  • primary lung cancer
  • secondary cancer in the lung
  • kidney cancer
Primary cancer means the original cancer in the part of the body where it started. A secondary cancer means cancer cells that have spread to another part of the body and formed a new tumour there. For example, secondary cancer in the liver that has spread from a bowel cancer.

Your doctors might recommend RFA if you can’t have surgery to treat your cancer. This could be because:

  • you have several tumours
  • the position of the cancer makes surgery difficult (for example, if it is near a major blood vessel)
  • you can’t have a general anaesthetic

Researchers have found that RFA works best on small cancers, usually those smaller than 5cm across. But doctors sometimes use RFA to treat larger tumours. You can have RFA treatment several times.

Barrett's oesophagus

Your doctor may suggest you have RFA either on its own or in combination with other treatment, if you have high grade Barrett's oesophagus. Barrett’s oesophagus is a change in the cells lining the food pipe (oesophagus). High grade means that the cells look very abnormal under the microscope.

How you have RFA

Before the treatment starts you have either a general anaesthetic or a sedative with a local anaesthetic.

You can have RFA in different ways. The most common way is through your skin (percutaneously). But you can also have it:

  • during surgery
  • during a laparopscopy, when your surgeon puts a flexible tube of optical fibres into your abdomen (tummy) through a small cut

After an anaesthetic, you have a CT scan or an ultrasound scan.

Your surgeon or radiologist uses the scan to guide a 1 to 2 millimetre wide probe through your skin into the tumour. Your surgeon might need to use several RFA probes if you have a large tumour or more than one tumour.

Your surgeon can vary the heat depending on the size of your cancer. The time this takes varies. It can take anything from 30 minutes to a couple of hours. 

Side effects of RFA

Most people have a few mild side effects after RFA. The main ones are:

  • discomfort or mild pain
  • generally feeling unwell with a raised temperature for a few days
  • infection, but this is rare

Most people stay in hospital overnight. But it’s sometimes possible to have your treatment as an outpatient and go home the same day.

Your doctor or specialist nurse gives you painkillers to take home with you.

How well RFA works

Because RFA is a new treatment, it is too early to be sure how well it works in the long term. But research results are promising for some cancer types.

The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) has issued guidance for the use of RFA. Generally it says that RFA is safe to use and causes few side effects or complications.

Talk to your doctor, if you think RFA may be suitable for you. If there isn’t a treatment centre near you, your doctor might be able to refer you to a centre outside your area.

Information and help

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