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Cytokines are a type of immunotherapy. They are used to treat some types of cancer, including kidney cancer.  

Cytokines are a group of proteins in the body that play an important part in boosting the immune system. Interferon and interleukin are types of cytokines found in the body. Scientists have developed man made versions of these to treat cancer.

Interferon is also called interferon alfa or Intron A. The man made form of interleukin is called aldesleukin. You might hear this called IL-2, Proleukin or interleukin 2.

How interferon and aldesleukin work

Interferon and aldesleukin work in several ways, including:

  • interfering with the way cancer cells grow and multiply
  • stimulating the immune system and encouraging killer T cells and other cells to attack cancer cells
  • encouraging cancer cells to produce chemicals that attract immune system cells to them

How you have interferon

Doctors use interferon for several different types of cancer including:

  • kidney cancer (renal cell cancer)
  • melanoma
  • multiple myeloma
  • some types of leukaemia

You are more likely to have interferon as an injection just under the skin (subcutaneously). Or you might have it into the bloodstream through a drip (infusion).

How often you have it depends on which type of cancer you are having treatment for. Most people have interferon 3 times a week. Or you might have it as a daily injection.

The video below shows you how to give an injection just under your skin (subcutaneously).

How you have aldesleukin

Aldesleukin is also called Interleukin 2, IL2 or Proleukin.

In cancer care, doctors use it most often to treat kidney cancer. It is also in clinical trials for some other types of cancer.

You are most likely to have it as an injection just under the skin (subcutaneously). But you may have it into a vein, either as an injection or through a drip.

How often you have interleukin 2 depends on which cancer you are being treated for.

Side effects of interferon and aldesleukin

The side effects of interferon and aldesleukin include:

  • tiredness and weakness (fatigue)
  • flu like symptoms
  • diarrhoea
  • low levels of blood cells
  • feeling sick
  • loss of appetite

Aldesleukin can also cause low blood pressure.

Last reviewed: 
27 Nov 2014
  • Electronic Medicines Compendium 
    Accessed August 2017

  • Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology (10th edition)
    VT De Vita, TS Lawrence and SA Rosenberg
    Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, 2015

  • Immunotherapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma
    S. Unverzagt (and others)
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 May 15;5:CD011673

  • Recognizing and managing on toxicities in cancer immunotherapy
    L.Yang, H Yu and S.Dong
    Tumour Biology. 2017 Mar;39(3):1010428317694542

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