Anti angiogenics are drugs that stops cancers from growing blood vessels. This slows the growth of cancer or sometimes shrink it.
What anti angiogenesis treatment is
A cancer needs a good blood supply to bring food and oxygen and remove waste products. When it has reached 1 to 2mm across, a tumour needs to grow its own blood vessels in order to continue to get bigger.
Some cancer cells make a protein called vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The VEGF protein attaches to receptors on cells that line the walls of blood vessels within the tumour. The cells are called endothelial cells.
This triggers the blood vessels to grow so the cancer can then grow.
Angiogenesis means the growth of new blood vessels. If we can stop cancers from growing blood vessels we can slow the growth of the cancer or sometimes shrink it.
Anti angiogenic drugs are treatments that stop tumours from growing their own blood vessels.
Types of anti angiogenesis treatment
There are different types of drugs that block blood vessel growth:
Drugs that block blood vessel growth factor
Some drugs block vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from attaching to the receptors on the cells that line the blood vessels. This stops the blood vessels from growing.
A drug that blocks VEGF is bevacizumab (Avastin). It is also a monoclonal antibody.
Drugs that block signalling within the cell
Some drugs stop the VEGF receptors from sending growth signals into the blood vessel cells. These treatments are also called cancer growth blockers or tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs).
Sunitinib (Sutent) is a type of TKI that blocks the growth signals inside blood vessel cells. It is used to treat kidney cancer and a rare type of stomach cancer called gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST).
Drugs that affect signals between cells
Some drugs act on the chemicals that cells use to signal to each other to grow. This can block the formation of blood vessels. Drugs that works in this way include thalidomide and lenalidomide (Revlimid).
Side effects of anti angiogenesis treatment
Each drug has different side effects.