Triple negative breast cancer is an uncommon type of breast cancer. Read about the symptoms, how it is diagnosed and treated, and what happens after treatment.
What triple negative breast cancer is
Triple negative breast cancers are cancers whose cells don’t have receptors for:
- the hormones oestrogen and progesterone
- Her2 protein
Your doctor uses a sample of your cancer to test the cells for these receptors. You might have this testing following a biopsy of the cancer, or after surgery to remove it.
A rare type of breast cancer known as basal type breast cancer is usually triple negative. Some women with triple negative breast cancer also have a BRCA1 gene fault. BRCA1 is one of the gene faults that can increase the risk of breast cancer within families.
Some men have triple negative breast cancer but this is very rare. Most men have oestrogen receptors in their cancer cells.
Breast cancer receptors
Some cancer cells have particular proteins called receptors. When certain substances in the body attach to the receptors, they trigger a reaction in the cancer cells that tell them to grow.
- Oestrogen attaches to oestrogen receptors
- Progesterone attaches to progesterone receptors
- Her2 attaches to Her2 receptors
Many breast cancers have receptors for one or more of these substances. But triple negative breast cancers don’t have any of them. So hormone treatment and the targeted cancer drug trastuzumab (Herceptin) don't work for people with triple negative breast cancer.
How common is triple negative breast cancer
Around 15 out of every 100 breast cancers (15%) are triple negative.
Symptoms of triple negative breast cancer
The symptoms of triple negative breast cancer are similar to other breast cancer types.
Symptoms can include:
- a lump or thickening in an area of the breast
- a change in the size, shape or feel of the breast
- dimpling of the skin
- a change in the shape of your nipple, particularly if it turns in, sinks into the breast, or has an irregular shape
- a blood stained discharge from the nipple
- a rash on a nipple or surrounding area
- a swelling or lump in the armpit
Make an appointment to see your GP if you notice anything different or unusual about the look and feel of your breasts.
Diagnosing triple negative breast cancer
In many women the cancer is found during breast screening.
If you have symptoms and see your GP they refer you to a specialist breast clinic. At the breast clinic the doctor or breast care nurse takes your medical history and examines your breasts. They also feel for any swollen (enlarged) lymph nodes under your arms and at the base of your neck.
You have some of the following tests:
- a mammogram (an x-ray of the breasts)
- an ultrasound (you are more likely to have this instead of a mammogram if you are under 35)
- a biopsy – your doctor or nurse take a small sample of cells or tissue from your breast to look at under a microscope
Depending on your age and whether other family members have had breast cancer, your doctor might refer you for gene testing. This is to find out if there is a fault (mutation) in the BRCA cancer gene.
Treatment for triple negative breast cancer
The main treatments for triple negative breast cancer are surgery and chemotherapy. The treatment you need depends on:
- where the cancer is
- the size of the cancer and whether it has spread (the stage)
- how abnormal the cells look under the microscope (the grade)
- your general health
You might have surgery to remove:
- an area of the breast (called wide local excision or lumpectomy)
- the whole breast (called mastectomy)
When you have your surgery, the surgeon usually takes out some of the lymph nodes under your arm. They test these nodes to see if they contain cancer cells. The surgeon might check the lymph nodes closest to the breast using a procedure called sentinel lymph node biopsy. Testing the lymph nodes helps to find the stage of the cancer and decide on further treatment.
After a wide local excision (lumpectomy) you usually have radiotherapy to the rest of the breast tissue.
You might have chemotherapy before surgery. The aim would be to shrink a large cancer enough to make an operation possible. Or it might mean that you can have an area of the breast removed, instead of needing a mastectomy.
You usually have chemotherapy after the operation. The chemotherapy reduces the risk of the breast cancer coming back. You usually have a combination of chemotherapy drugs that might include:
You might have the combination called FEC-T, which is made up of the drugs:
- F - Fluorouracil (5FU)
- E- Epirubicin
- C - Cyclophosphamide
- T - Docetaxel (Taxotere)
Researchers are still looking into the best chemotherapy combinations. And they want to find out whether adding other drugs could improve the results of treatment.
Doctors also use chemotherapy for cancer that has spread elsewhere in the body. This is called advanced breast cancer.
After treatment you usually have regular check ups. At the check ups your doctor or a breast care nurse will examine you and ask about your general health. This is your chance to ask questions and to tell them if anything is worrying you.
How often you have check ups depends on your individual situation but they might go on for at least 5 years. This might include yearly mammograms.
It’s important to remember that you can contact your doctor or nurse between appointments if you are concerned about a symptom or have questions. You don't have to wait for your next appointment. You can also speak to your GP.
In some hospitals you don't have regular appointments after treatment. But if you have new symptoms or are worried about anything you can phone your doctor or breast care nurse or make an appointment to see them.
UK guidelines say that everyone who has had treatment for early breast cancer should have a copy of a written care plan. The care plan has information about tests you will have, and signs and symptoms to look out for. It will also include contact details for specialist staff, such as your breast care nurse.
Trials for early stage triple negative breast cancer
Your doctor or nurse might ask you to take part in a trial to improve treatments for triple negative breast cancer.
Researchers are looking at different chemotherapy drugs and also combining them with targeted cancer drugs. Doctors are testing a hormone therapy called enzalutamide for breast cancers that have androgen receptors. Androgens are hormones made in both men and women. Some triple negative breast cancers have androgen receptors.
Trials for advanced triple negative breast cancer
Trials are comparing different types of chemotherapy to see which are better at treating advanced disease. For example, researchers are waiting for the results of the Triple Negative Trial (TNT) to find out whether it is better to use carboplatin or docetaxel.
Research is looking at using targeted cancer drugs alongside other treatments. For example, a trial is using a drug called atezolizumab in combination with chemotherapy. Some trials are testing a drug called pembrolizumab. Researchers think that these targeted drugs on their own might help to control the growth of the cancer.