Find out about who gets penile cancer, where it starts and how common it is.
The penis is the male sex organ. It is part of the urinary and reproductive system in the body. It has a tube called the urethra that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body, and carries semen (sperm) from the testicles.
The root is the base of the penis and is inside the body. From here it extends to the outside. It hangs in front of a pouch of skin called the scrotum. The scrotum holds both testicles.
The parts of the penis are the:
- body or shaft
- foreskin, a moveable layer of skin that that covers the tip of the penis (glans)
- frenulum which is a ridge below the head of the penis
Some men have an operation called a circumcision to remove the foreskin.
Different types of tissue including skin, muscle and nerves make up the penis. It has a rich blood supply. When sexually aroused, blood flow to the penis increases. Columns of special muscle tissue in the body of the penis (erectile tissue) fill up with blood. This makes it upright (an erection) during sexual activity.
This diagram shows the parts of the penis.
The lymph nodes
Lymph nodes, or lymph glands are small, bean shaped glands that make up part of the lymphatic system. They are all over the body, including in the pelvis. If penile cancer spreads it is most likely to be in the lymph nodes close to the penis.
Who gets it
Most men diagnosed with penile cancer are older than 50. It rarely affects men under 40.
It is more common in men who live in Asia, Africa or South America.
The exact cause of penile cancer is not known but there are several risk factors including:
- human palliloma virus (HPV) – this is a common infection and for most people it causes no harm
Where it starts
Cancer can develop anywhere on the penis but most commonly develops under the foreskin in men who haven’t been circumcised, or on the head or tip of the penis (glans).
The type of penile cancer depends on the type of cell it starts in.
How common it is
Penile cancer is a rare cancer in Western countries. Around 600 men are diagnosed each year in the UK.