The side effects of the chemotherapy drug doxorubicin.
What it is
Doxorubicin is a chemotherapy drug also known as Adriamycin. It works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells.
If you have any side effects
Tell your doctor or nurse if you have any side effects so they can help you manage them. Your nurse will give you a contact number to ring if you have any questions or problems. If in doubt, call them.
Common side effects
Each of these effects happens in more than 1 in 10 people (10%). You might have one or more of them.
Feeling or being sick
Feeling or being sick can be severe. It can start a few hours after treatment and last for a few days. Anti sickness injections and tablets can control it. Tell your doctor or nurse if you feel sick. You may need to try different anti sickness medicines to find one that works.
- Avoid eating or preparing food when you feel sick.
- Avoid fried foods, fatty foods or foods with a strong smell.
- Drink plenty of liquid to stop you from getting dehydrated.
- Relaxation techniques help control sickness for some people.
- Ginger can help – try it as crystallised stem ginger, ginger tea or ginger ale.
- Fizzy drinks help some people when they are feeling sick.
Tiredness and weakness (fatigue) during and after treatment
You might feel very tired during your treatment. It might take 6 months to a year for your energy levels to get back to normal after the treatment ends. A low red blood cell count will also make you feel tired.
You can do things to help yourself, including some gentle exercise. It’s important not to push yourself too hard. Try to eat a well balanced diet.
Talk to your doctor or nurse if you are finding the tiredness difficult to manage.
You could lose all your hair. This includes your eyelashes, eyebrows, underarm, leg and sometimes pubic hair. It usually starts gradually within 2 to 3 weeks after treatment begins.
Your hair will grow back once your chemotherapy treatment has finished. This can take several months and your hair is likely to be softer. It can also grow back a different colour or be curlier than before.
- Ask about getting a wig before you start treatment so you can match the colour and texture of your real hair.
- You could choose a wig for a whole new look.
- Think about having your hair cut short before your treatment starts.
- Some people shave their hair off completely so they don't have to cope with their hair falling out.
- Wear a hairnet at night so you won't wake up with hair all over your pillow.
A cold cap might help to stop your hair falling out but you need to talk to your doctor about whether this is advisable in your case.
Sore mouth and throat
Your mouth and throat might get sore. It may be painful to swallow drinks or food. You will have mouth washes to keep your mouth healthy.
You can have painkillers to reduce the soreness. Take them half an hour before meals to make eating easier.
Red or pink urine
This won't harm you. It’s due to the colour of the chemotherapy and lasts for one or two days.
Black or brown lines may appear in the creases of your skin. This is particularly common in children.
Skin sensitivity to sunlight
Don’t use sunbeds or sit in the sun. Cover up or use a sun block if you go out in the sun. Remember to put sun cream on your head or wear a hat if you have lost any hair there.
Watery eyes is also called excessive tearing or epiphora (pronounced ep-if-or-ah). It may be due to a blockage in the drainage system of the eye, caused by swelling of the nearby tissues. Or your eyes may make too many tears.
Tell your doctor or nurse if this is a problem. They can prescribe medicines to help reduce swelling.
Some irritants can make the watering worse. These can include dust, pollen or animal hairs. Try to avoid them or wear protective goggles.
This occurs in about 1 in 4 people (25%).
Women might stop having periods (amenorrhoea) but this may be temporary.
Loss of fertility
Talk to your doctor before starting treatment if you think you may want to have a baby in the future.
You may be able to store sperm before starting treatment.
It can take a few months or sometimes years for fertility to return to normal. You can have sperm counts to check your fertility when your treatment is over. Ask your doctor about it.
Chemotherapy can cause an early menopause. This stops you from being able to become pregnant in the future. Talk to your doctor about this before your treatment. It’s sometimes possible to store eggs or embryos before treatment.
Occasional side effects
Each of these effects happens in more than 1 in 100 people (1%). You might have one or more of them.
Increased risk of getting an infection
Signs of an infection include headaches, aching muscles, a cough, a sore throat, pain passing urine, or feeling cold and shivery.
Chemotherapy reduces the number of white blood cells in the blood. This increases your risk of infections. White blood cells help fight infections.
When the level is very low it is called neutropenia (pronounced new-troh-pee-nee-ah).
You have antibiotics if you develop an infection. You might have them as tablets or as injections into the bloodstream (intravenously). To have them into your bloodstream you need to go into hospital.
Breathlessness and looking pale
Chemotherapy makes the level of red blood cells fall (anaemia). Red blood cells contain haemoglobin, which carries oxygen around the body. When the level of red blood cells is low you have less oxygen going to your cells. This can make you breathless and look pale. Tell your doctor or nurse if you feel breathless.
You have regular blood tests to check your red blood cell levels. You might need a blood transfusion if the level is very low. After a transfusion, you will be less breathless and less pale.
You can also feel tired and depressed when your blood count is low and feel better once it is back to normal. The levels can rise and fall during your treatment. So it can feel like you are on an emotional and physical roller coaster.
Bruising, bleeding gums or nosebleeds
You might notice you:
- bruise more easily
- have nosebleeds
- have bleeding gums when you brush your teeth
This is due to a drop in the number of platelets that help clot your blood.
If your platelets get very low you may have lots of tiny red spots or bruises on your arms or legs called petechiae.
Tell your doctor or nurse straight away if you have petechiae.
You have a platelet transfusion if your platelet count is very low. It is a drip of a clear fluid containing platelets. It takes about 15 to 30 minutes. The new platelets start to work right away.
Inflammation around the drip site
Tell your nurse straight away if you have any pain, redness, swelling or leaking around your drip site.
A small number of people have an allergic reaction, usually during the first or second treatment.
Symptoms include a skin rash, itching, feeling hot and shivering. Other symptoms include redness of the face, dizziness, a headache, shortness of breath and anxiety.
Your nurse will keep a close eye on you and give you treatment straight away if this happens. They might slow your drip down.
An allergic reaction occurs in 3 people in 100 (3%).
Reddening of the skin
You might get reddening of the skin in areas where you have had radiotherapy in the past. The skin in the area may also get dry and flaky and feel sore and hot. This goes away on its own.
This is usually temporary but for a small number of people may be permanent. Your doctor will check your heart before and after your treatment.
Tell your doctor or nurse if you have diarrhoea. They can prescribe medicine to help you.
Drink at least 2.5 litres of fluid a day. This helps to keep you hydrated.
Ask your nurse about soothing creams to apply around your back passage (rectum). The skin in that area can get very sore and even break if you have severe diarrhoea.
Loss of appetite
You might lose your appetite for various reasons when you are having cancer treatment. Sickness, taste changes or tiredness can all put you off food and drinks.
- Eating several small meals and snacks throughout the day can be easier to manage.
- Ask your doctor or nurse to recommend high calorie drinks to sip between treatments, if you are worried about losing weight.
- You can make up calories between treatments for the days when you really don’t feel like eating.
- Drink plenty of fluids even if you can't eat.
- Don't fill your stomach with a large amount of liquid before eating.
- Try to eat high calorie foods to keep your weight up.
Raised uric acid levels in the blood
High levels of uric acid in your blood can lead to a build up of crystals in body tissues and cause inflamed joints. You’ll have regular blood tests to check your levels. Drinking plenty of fluids helps to flush out the excess uric acid. You might also have medicines to control the uric acid levels.
Your nails may become darker and white lines may appear on them.
High temperature (fever)
If you get a high temperature, let your health care team know straight away. Ask them if you can take paracetamol to help lower your temperature.
You may feel cold and shivery as well.
Rare side effects
Each of these effects happens in fewer than 1 in 100 people (1%). You might have one or more of them.
You have an increased risk of a second cancer some years later if you have a high dose of doxorubicin or many doxorubicin treatments.
Your eyes may be sore because the drugs cause a reaction on the inside of your eyelids. Or you may not be making enough tears. Your eyes can feel sore and gritty and might be red.
Tell your doctor or nurse if you have dry eyes. They can prescribe eye drops, ointments or artificial tears for you.
Warm compresses can help your eye to drain if you have an infection.
Let your doctor or nurse know if you have a sore, red, swollen area on your leg.
Bleeding from the stomach
Let your doctor or nurse know straight away if you have sudden, sharp tummy (abdominal) pain, vomiting, or blood in your poo (faeces) or vomit.
Tummy (abdominal) pain
Tell your doctor or nurse if you have this.
More information about this treatment
We haven't listed all the very rare side effects of this treatment. For further information see the electronic Medicines Compendium (eMC) website.
You can report any side effect you have that isn’t listed here to the Medicines Health and Regulatory Authority (MHRA) as part of their Yellow Card Scheme.