Radiotherapy is a common treatment for people with cancer. The two main reasons for having radiotherapy are to either try to cure cancer or to the help to control symptoms.
Whether you have radiotherapy as part of your treatment depends on what type of cancer you have, how big it is and whether it has spread or not.
Radiotherapy is good at treating certain cancers, whilst some are more resistant to radiation. This means radiotherapy would have less of an effect on these cancers.
Radiotherapy only treats the area of the body that it is aimed at. It is a local treatment.
You might have radiotherapy:
- before surgery
- after surgery
- as part of total body irradiation
- combined with chemotherapy
- as a stand alone treatment
Treatment that aims to cure cancer
You often have radiotherapy with other treatments, such as surgery or chemotherapy. Radiotherapy that aims to cure cancer is called radical or curative radiotherapy.
The length of your course of treatment depends on the size and type of the cancer and where it is in your body.
Some people have radiotherapy to relieve symptoms, such as pain. This is called palliative treatment.
You might have emergency radiotherapy to help control certain symptoms. This means you have your treatment within 24 hours of being diagnosed.
You might have your treatment in a single day or up to 2 weeks. But this can vary.
You might have radiotherapy before surgery to shrink the cancer. This can make it easier to remove and for some will mean that surgery becomes possible when before radiotherapy it wasn't.
This type of treatment is called neoadjuvant treatment or preoperative radiotherapy.
Radiotherapy after surgery aims to kill any cancer cells that remain in the area after the operation. This is to try to lower the risk of the cancer coming back.
It is called adjuvant treatment or postoperative radiotherapy.
Total body irradiation (TBI)
Total body irradiation (TBI) is a type of radiotherapy sometimes given to people having a stem cell (or bone marrow) transplant, for example for some types of leukaemia or lymphoma.
You have radiation to the whole body combined with chemotherapy. The treatment destroys the bone marrow cells.
You then have new stem cells put into your bloodstream. The stem cells are either your own or from someone else (a donor).
Combining radiotherapy with cancer drugs
Chemotherapy can be given before, during or after a course of radiotherapy. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy given together is called chemoradiotherapy or chemoradiation.
Targeted cancer drugs can also be combined with radiotherapy to treat some types of cancer.