Kidney cancer incidence statistics

Kidney cancer is the eighth most common cancer in the UK (2012), accounting for 3% of all new cases. In males, it is the seventh most common cancer in the UK (4% of all male cases), whilst it is 10th most common cancer in females (2% of all female cases).[1-4]

In 2012, there were 10,380 new cases of kidney cancer in the UK: 6,459 (62%) in men and 3,921 (38%) in women, giving a male:female ratio of around 16:10.[1-4] The crude incidence rate Open a glossary item shows that there are 21 new kidney cancer cases for every 100,000 males in the UK, and 12 for every 100,000 females.

The European age-standardised rates Open a glossary item (AS rates) do not differ significantly between the countries of the UK for either sex.

Kidney Cancer (C64-C66 and C68), Number of New Cases, Crude and European Age-Standardised (AS) Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2012

England Wales Scotland Northern Ireland UK
Male Cases 5,443 341 524 151 6,459
Crude Rate 20.7 22.6 20.3 16.9 20.6
AS Rate 24.9 25.2 23.5 22.0 24.8
AS Rate - 95% LCL 24.3 22.5 21.5 18.5 24.2
AS Rate - 95% UCL 25.6 27.9 25.5 25.6 25.4
Female Cases 3,195 223 380 123 3,921
Crude Rate 11.8 14.3 13.9 13.2 12.1
AS Rate 12.4 13.6 14.0 15.1 12.6
AS Rate - 95% LCL 11.9 11.8 12.6 12.4 12.2
AS Rate - 95% UCL 12.8 15.4 15.4 17.7 13.0
Persons Cases 8,638 564 904 274 10,380
Crude Rate 16.1 18.3 17.0 15.0 16.3
AS Rate 18.1 18.8 18.2 18.0 18.1
AS Rate - 95% LCL 17.7 17.2 17.0 15.9 17.8
AS Rate - 95% UCL 18.5 20.3 19.4 20.2 18.5

95% LCL and 95% UCL are the 95% lower and upper confidence limits Open a glossary item round the AS Rate Open a glossary item

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

A north-south divide in kidney cancer incidence (particularly for females) has existed across the UK since at least the 1990s, when high rates were reported in Scotland, parts of Wales and the north of England.[5] The latest analyses of kidney cancer incidence rates throughout the UK report significant variation between the former cancer networks, with higher than average rates in parts of Scotland, Wales, south west England and northern England, and lower than average rates in parts of London and south-east England, and the West Midlands.[6,7]

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, April 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=59080
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, June 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/
  5. Quinn M, Wood H, Cooper N, et al. Cancer Atlas of the United Kingdom and Ireland 1991-2000. Office for National Statistics: Newport; 2005. 
  6. National Cancer Intelligence Network (NCIN). Cancer Incidence and Mortality by Cancer Network, UK, 2005. NCIN; London: 2008. 
  7. National Cancer Intelligence Network (NCIN). Cancer e-Atlas. Accessed January 2014
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Kidney cancer incidence is strongly related to age, with the highest incidence rates being in older men and women. In the UK between 2010 and 2012, an average of 35% of cases were diagnosed in men and women aged 75 and over, and three quarters (76%) were diagnosed in those aged 60 and over.[1-4] A small proportion of kidney cancers occur in children.

Age-specific incidence rates rise sharply from around age 45-49, peaking in the 85-89 age group. Incidence rates are higher for males than for females at age 35 and above (the gap is not significant in younger age groups), and this gap is widest at 90+, when the male:female incidence ratio of age-specific rates (to account for the different proportions of males to females in each age group) is around 22:10.[1-4]

Kidney Cancer (C64-C66 and C68), Average Number of New Cases per Year and Age-Specific Incidence Rates, UK, 2010-2012

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, April 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=59080
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, June 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.
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Kidney cancer incidence rates have increased overall in Great Britain since the late-1970s.[1-4] For males, European age standardised Open a glossary item (AS) incidence rates have increased by 132% between 1979-1981 and 2010-2012. This rise is larger for females, with rates increasing by 160% between 1979-1981 and 2010-2012. Though some of this increase is probably due to incidental detection of asymptomatic disease through new imaging methods (e.g. ultrasound Open a glossary item, computed tomography Open a glossary item and magnetic resonance imaging Open a glossary item),[5-8] this does not fully explain the trend.[8-10] Changing prevalence of risk factors, including smoking and obesity, is also thought to be implicated.[5,9,11]

Kidney Cancer (C64-C66 and C68), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, Great Britain, 1979-2012

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.
 

Over the last decade (between 2001-2003 and 2010-2012), the European AS incidence rates for the UK have increased by 29% and 38% in males and females, respectively.[1-4]

Kidney Cancer (C64-C66 and C68), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, UK, 1993-2012

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.
 

Kidney cancer incidence rates have increased overall for most of the broad adult age groups in Great Britain since the late-1970s.[1-3] The largest increase has been in people aged 80 and over, with European AS incidence rates increasing by more than three times (250% increase) between 1979-1981 and 2010-2012. Incidence rates remained stable in those aged 0-24 over this period of time.

Kidney Cancer (C64-C66 and C68), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, by Age, Persons, Great Britain, 1979-2012

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, April 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=59080
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, June 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.
  5. Mathew A, Devesa SS, Fraumeni JF Jr, et al. Global increases in kidney cancer incidence, 1973-1992. Eur J Cancer Prev 2002:11(2):171-8.
  6. Jayson M, Sanders H. Increased incidence of serendipitously discovered renal cell carcinoma. Urology 1998:51(2):203-5.
  7. Hollingsworth JM, Miller DC, Daignault S, et al. Rising Incidence of Small Renal Masses: A Need to Reassess Treatment Effect. J Natl Cancer Inst 2006:98(18):1331-1334.
  8. Nguyen MM, Gill IS, Ellison LM. The evolving presentation of renal carcinoma in the United States: trends from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program. J Urol 2006:176(6 Pt 1):2397-400
  9. Chow WH, Devesa SS, Warren JL, et al. Rising incidence of renal cell cancer in the United States. JAMA 1999:281(17):1628-31.
  10. Tate R, Iddenden R, Harden P, et al. Increased incidence of renal parenchymal carcinoma in the Northern and Yorkshire region of England, 1978-1997. Eur J Cancer 2003:39: 961-967.
  11. Simard EP, Ward EM, Siegel R, et al. Cancers with  increasing incidence trends in the United States: 1999 through 2008. CA  Cancer J Clin 2012. doi: 10.3322/caac.20141.
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Staging completeness for kidney cancer is moderate in England, with 71% of kidney cancers recorded with a known stage at diagnosis in 2013.[1]

Kidney Cancer (C64), Proportion of Cases Diagnosed at Each Stage, England 2013

People diagnosed with kidney cancer with a known stage most commonly present at stage I (44%), in England. More people with a known stage are diagnosed at an early stage (54% diagnosed at stage I or II) than an advanced stage (46% diagnosed at stage III or IV). More than a quarter (27%) of people have metastases Open a glossary item at diagnosis (stage IV).[1]

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The lifetime risk of developing kidney cancer is 1 in 52 for men and 1 in 87 for women, in 2012 in the UK.[1]

The lifetime risk for kidney cancer has been calculated to account for the possibility that someone can have more than one diagnosis of kidney cancer over the course of their lifetime (‘Adjusted for Multiple Primaries’ (AMP) method).[2]

References

  1. Lifetime risk estimates calculated by the Statistical Information Team at Cancer Research UK. Based on data provided by the Office of National Statistics, ISD Scotland, the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit and the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry, on request, December 2013 to July 2014.
  2. Sasieni PD, Shelton J, Ormiston-Smith N, et al. What is the lifetime risk of developing cancer?: The effect of adjusting for multiple primaries. Br J Cancer, 2011. 105(3): p. 460-5.
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Most kidney cancer cases occur in the kidney, with much smaller proportions in the renal pelvis, ureter and urethra and paraurethral gland (2010-2012).[1-4]

The proportion of cases in each part is similar between males and females.[1-4]

A small proportion of cases did not have the specific part of the kidney recorded in cancer registry data, or overlapped more than one part.[1-4]

Kidney Cancer (C64-C66, C68), Percentage Distribution of Cases Diagnosed By Anatomical Site, UK, 2010-2012

Cancer site (ICD-10 code) Average Cases %
Kidney (C64) 8,766 85.6%
Renal Pelvis (C65) 674 6.6%
Ureter (C66) 586 5.7%
Urethra and Paraurethral Gland (C68.0-C68.1) 137 1.3%
Urinary Organ, Overlapping and Unspecified (C68.8-C68.9) 78 0.8%
Total 10,241 100.0%

Cases and percentages may not sum due to rounding

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2014. Similar data can be found here:
    http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, April 2014. Similar data can be found here:
    http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=59080.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, June 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/CancerInformation/.

     
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Kidney cancer (C64-C66) is the seventh most common cancer in Europe, with more than 115,000 new cases diagnosed in 2012 (3% of the total). In Europe (2012), the highest World age-standardised incidence rates for kidney cancer are in the Czech Republic for both men and women; the lowest rates are in Macedonia for men and Cyprus for women. UK kidney cancer incidence rates are estimated to be the 19th lowest in males in Europe, and the 17th highest in females.[1] These data are broadly in line with Europe-specific data available elsewhere.[2]

Kidney cancer (C64-C66) is the 13th most common cancer worldwide, with around 338,000 new cases diagnosed in 2012 (2% of the total). Kidney cancer incidence rates are highest in parts of Northern America and lowest in Middle Africa, but this partly reflects varying data quality worldwide.[2]

Variation between countries may reflect different prevalence of risk factors, use of screening and diagnostic methods.

References

  1. Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2013. Available from: http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed December 2013. 
  2. Ferlay J, Steliarova-Foucher E, Lortet-Tieulent J, et al.Cancer incidence and mortality patterns in Europe: Estimates for 40 countries in 2012. European Journal of Cancer (2013) 49, 1374-1403.
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Two of the major risk factors for kidney cancer are obesity and smoking, and so it is not surprising that kidney cancer incidence shows an association with deprivation in the UK. The most recent England-wide data for 2000-2004 shows European AS incidence rates are around 11% higher for men and 30% higher for women living in more deprived areas compared with the least deprived.[1] Higher incidence rates in the most deprived populations have also been published for Northern Ireland and Wales.[2,3] A study in Scotland for kidney cancer excluding the ureter and other and unspecified urinary organs (ICD-10 C64-C65) for 2005-2009 also shows around a 25% significant difference between the most and least deprived populations.[4]

References

  1. National Cancer Intelligence Network (NCIN). Cancer incidence by deprivation England, 1995-2004. NCIN; London: 2008. 
  2. Donnelly DW, Gavin AT, Comber H. Cancer in Ireland 1994-2004: A comprehensive report. Northern Ireland Cancer Registry/National Cancer Registry, Ireland; Belfast: 2009. 
  3. Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit (WCISU). Cancer in Wales, 1995-2009: A Comprehensive Report. WCISU; Cardiff:2011. 
  4. Information Services Division (ISD) Scotland. Cancer statistics. Cancer statistics. Kidney cancer. Accessed March 2012.
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Age-standardised rates for White males with kidney cancer range from 11.2 to 11.8 per 100,000. Rates for Asian males are significantly lower, ranging from 5.3 to 9.2 per 100,000 and the rates for Black males are also significantly lower, ranging from 5.9 to 10.8 per 100,000. For females there is a different pattern - the age-standardised rates for White females range from 5.7 to 6.0 per 100,000. Rates for Black females are similar, ranging from 3.0 to 6.0 per 100,000, whereas Asian females are significantly lower, ranging from 1.9 to 3.8 per 100,000.[1]

Ranges are given because of the analysis methodology used to account for missing and unknown data. For kidney cancer, 25,886 cases were identified; 21% had no known ethnicity.

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In the UK around 26,500 people were still alive at the end of 2006, up to ten years after being diagnosed with kidney cancer.[1]

Kidney Cancer (C64-C66 and C68), One, Five and Ten Year Cancer Prevalence, UK, 31st December 2006

1 Year Prevalence 5 Year Prevalence 10 Year Prevalence
Male 3,186 10,771 16,468
Female 1,894 6,466 10,035
Persons 5,080 17,237 26,503

Worldwide, it is estimated that there were around 744,000 men and women still alive in 2008, up to five years after their diagnosis.[2]

References

  1. National Cancer Intelligence Network (NCIN). One, five and ten-year cancer prevalence by cancer network, UK, 2006. NCIN; London: 2010.
  2. Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, et al. GLOBOCAN 2008 v1.2, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 10 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2010. Available from http://globocan.iarc.fr/. Accessed May 2011.
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