89% of oesophageal cancer cases each year in the UK are linked to major lifestyle and other risk factors.
Oesophageal cancer is associated with a number of risk factors.[2-4]
Oesophageal Cancer Risk Factors
|Increases risk ('sufficient' or 'convincing' evidence)||May increase risk ('limited' or 'probable' evidence)||Decreases risk ('sufficient' or 'convincing' evidence)||May decrease risk ('limited' or 'probable' evidence)|
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and The World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) classifications.
a Oesophageal adenocarcinoma (AC) only; b ‘Probable’ evidence in WCRF/AICR report; c Not salted/pickled; d Foods naturally containing or fortified with (not supplements)
- Parkin DM, Boyd L, Walker LC. The fraction of cancer attributable to lifestyle and environmental factors in the UK in 2010. Br J Cancer 2011;105(S2):S77-S81.
- International Agency for Research on Cancer. List of Classifications by cancer sites with sufficient or limited evidence in humans, Volumes 1 to 105*. Accessed July 2014.
- Cogliano VJ, Baan R, Straif K, et al. Preventable exposures associated with human cancers. J Natl Cancer Inst 2011;103(24):1827-39.
- World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research. Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective. Washington DC: AICR; 2007.