Myeloma incidence statistics

Cases

New cases of myeloma, 2014, UK

 

Proportion of all cases

Percentage myeloma is of total cancer cases, 2014, UK

 

Age

Peak rate of myeloma cases, 2012-2014, UK

 

Trend since 1970s

Myeloma incidence rates have increased since the late 1970s, GB

 

Myeloma is the 18th most common cancer in the UK (2014), accounting for around 2% of all new cases. In males, it is the 15th most common cancer (2% of all male cases) whilst it is the 17th in females (1% of all female cases).

In 2014, there were 5,501 new cases of myeloma in the UK: 3,072 (56%) in men and 2,429 (44%) in women, giving a male:female ratio of around 13:10.[1-4] The crude incidence rate Open a glossary item shows that there are 10 new myeloma cases for every 100,000 males in the UK and 7 for every 100,000 females.

The European age-standardised incidence (AS) rates Open a glossary item do not differ significantly between the constituent countries of the UK for either sex.[1-4]

Myeloma (C90), Number of New Cases, Crude and European Age-Standardised (AS) Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2014

England Wales Scotland Northern Ireland UK
Male Cases 2,598 148 247 79 3,072
Crude Rate 9.7 9.7 9.5 8.8 9.7
AS Rate 11.7 10.6 11.1 11.8 11.6
AS Rate - 95% LCL 11.2 8.9 9.7 9.2 11.2
AS Rate - 95% UCL 12.1 12.3 12.5 14.4 12.0
Female Cases 2,054 121 190 64 2,429
Crude Rate 7.5 7.7 6.9 6.8 7.4
AS Rate 7.7 7.2 6.8 7.7 7.6
AS Rate - 95% LCL 7.3 5.9 5.8 5.8 7.3
AS Rate - 95% UCL 8.0 8.5 7.7 9.5 7.9
Persons Cases 4,652 269 437 143 5,501
Crude Rate 8.6 8.7 8.2 7.8 8.5
AS Rate 9.5 8.6 8.6 9.6 9.3
AS Rate - 95% LCL 9.2 7.6 7.8 8.0 9.1
AS Rate - 95% UCL 9.7 9.7 9.4 11.1 9.6

95% LCL and 95% UCL are the 95% lower and upper confidence limits Open a glossary item around the AS Rate Open a glossary item

For myeloma, like most cancer types, differences between countries largely reflect risk factor prevalence in years past.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.

About this data

Data is for: UK, 2014, ICD-10 C90

Last reviewed:

Myeloma incidence is strongly related to age, with the highest incidence rates being in older males and females. In the UK in 2012-2014, on average each year almost half (45%) cases were diagnosed in people aged 75 and over.[1-4]

Incidence rates rise sharply from around age 55-59, peak in the 85-89 age group, and then subsequently drop. Incidence rates are higher for males than females in those aged 35-39 and 45-49 and over (the difference is not significant at younger ages or at age 40-44), and this gap is widest at age 35-39 when the male: female ratio of age-specific incidence rate (to account for the different proportions of males to females in each age group) is around 21:10.[1-4]

Myeloma (C90), Average Number of New Cases per Year and Age-Specific Incidence Rates, UK, 2012-2014

For myeloma, like most cancer types, incidence increases with age. This largely reflects cell DNA damage accumulating over time. Damage can result from biological processes or from exposure to risk factors. A drop or plateau in incidence in the oldest age groups often indicates reduced diagnostic activity perhaps due to general ill health.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.

About this data

Data is for UK, 2012-2014, ICD-10 C90

Last reviewed:

Myeloma incidence rates have increased by 66% in Great Britain since the late 1970s.[1-3] This includes a larger overall increase for males than for females.

For males, European age-standardised (AS) Open a glossary item rates increased by 67% between 1979-1981 and 2011-2013. For females, rates increased by 57% between 1979-1981 and 2011-2013.[1-3]

Myeloma (C90), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, Great Britain, 1979-2013​

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

Over the last decade in the UK (between 2002-2004 and 2011-2013), myeloma AS incidence rates have increased by 14% for males and females combined, with similar increases in males and females separately (both 13%).[1-4]

Myeloma (C90), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, UK, 1993-2013

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

Myeloma incidence trends probably reflect improvements in diagnostic techniques and data registration.[5-8]

Myeloma rates have increased overall for all of the broad age groups in Great Britain since the late 1970s.[1-3] The largest increases have been in people aged 80+, with European AS incidence rates increasing by 89% between 1979-1981 and 2011-2013. The smallest change has been in people aged 50-59, with European AS incidence rates rising by 37% between 1979-1981 and 2011-2013.[1-3]

Myeloma (C90), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, by Age, Great Britain, 1979-2013

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, February 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=59080
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, March 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/
  5. Renshaw C, Ketley N, Moller H, et al. Trends in the incidence and survival of multiple myeloma in South East England 1985-2004. BMC Cancer 2010;10:74.
  6. Kyle RA, Therneau TM, Rajkumar SV, et al. Incidence of multiple myeloma in Olmsted County, Minnesota: Trend over 6 decades. Cancer 2004;101(11):2667-74.
  7. Turesson I, Velez R, Kristinsson SY, et al. Patterns of multiple myeloma during the past 5 decades: stable incidence rates for all age groups in the population but rapidly changing age distribution in the clinic. Mayo Clin Proc 2010;85(3):225-30.
  8. Mistry M, Parkin DM, Ahmad AS, et al. Cancer incidence in the United Kingdom: projections to the year 2030. Brit J Cancer 2011;105(11):1795-803.
Last reviewed:

Myeloma incidence rates are projected to rise by 11% in the UK between 2014 and 2035, to 12 cases per 100,000 people by 2035.[1] This includes a larger increase for males than for females.

For males, myeloma European age-standardised (AS) Open a glossary item incidence rates in the UK are projected to rise by 13% between 2014 and 2035, to 16 cases per 100,000 by 2035.[1] For females, rates are projected to rise by 7% between 2014 and 2035, to 10 cases per 100,000 by 2035.[1]

Myeloma (C90), Observed and Projected Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, by Sex, UK, 1979-2035

 

It is projected that 8,888 cases of myeloma (5,229 in males, 3,659 in females) will be diagnosed in the UK in 2035.

References

  1. Smittenaar CR, Petersen KA, Stewart K, Moitt N. Cancer Incidence and Mortality Projections in the UK Until 2035. Brit J Cancer 2016.

About this data

Data is for: UK, 1979-2014 (observed), 2015-2035 (projected), ICD-10 C90

Projections are based on observed incidence and mortality rates and therefore implicitly include changes in cancer risk factors, diagnosis and treatment. It is not possible to assess the statistical significance of changes between 2014 (observed) and 2035 (projected) figures. Confidence intervals are not calculated for the projected figures. Projections are by their nature uncertain because unexpected events in future could change the trend. It is not sensible to calculate a boundary of uncertainty around these already uncertain point estimates. Changes are described as 'increase' or 'decrease' if there is any difference between the point estimates.

More on projections methodology

Last reviewed:

The lifetime risk of developing myeloma is around 1 in 115 for men and around 1 in 155 for women, in 2012 in the UK.[1]

The lifetime risk for myeloma has been calculated on the assumption that the possibility of having more than one diagnosis of myeloma over the course of a lifetime is very low (‘Current Probability’ method).[2]

References

  1. Lifetime risk estimates calculated by the Statistical Information Team at Cancer Research UK. Based on data provided by the Office of National Statistics, ISD Scotland, the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit and the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry, on request, December 2013 to July 2014.
  2. Esteve J, Benhamou E and Raymond L. Descriptive epidemiology. IARC Scientific Publications No.128, Lyon, International Agency for Research on Cancer, pp 67-68 1994.
Last reviewed:

There is no evidence for an association between myeloma incidence and deprivation for either males or females in England.[1] England-wide data for 2006-2010 show European age-standardised  incidence rates are similar for both males and females living in the most deprived areas compared with the least deprived.[1]

Myeloma (C90), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates by Deprivation Quintile, England, 2006-2010

The estimated deprivation gradient in myeloma incidence between people living in the most and least deprived areas in England has not changed in the period 1996-2010.[1]

Last reviewed:

Age-standardised Open a glossary item rates for White males with myeloma (ICD-10 C88-C90) range from 6.1 to 6.5 per 100,000. Rates for Asian males are similar, ranging from 3.6 to 6.4 per 100,000, whereas the rates for Black males are significantly higher, ranging from 10.9 to 18.2 per 100,000. For females there is a similar pattern - the age-standardised rates for White females range from 3.9 to 4.2 per 100,000. Rates for Asian females are similar, ranging from 2.3 to 4.4 per 100,000, whereas the rates for Black females are significantly higher, ranging from 6.6 to 11.5 per 100,000.[1]

Ranges are given because of the analysis methodology used to account for missing and unknown data. For myeloma, 17,357 cases were identified; 18% had no known ethnicity.

A similar ethnic pattern has been observed in the UK for almost 40 years, with myeloma occurring around twice as frequently in African Americans as Caucasians.[2] It appears that, in comparison with white people, black people have younger myeloma onset,[3] and a higher incidence of MGUS (though no difference in progression risk).[4,5] However, the reasons underpinning these ethnic differences have yet to be explained, and are currently the subject of much research.[4,6]

Last reviewed:

In the UK around 12,500 people were still alive at the end of 2006, up to ten years after being diagnosed with myeloma.[1]

Myeloma (C88 and C90), One-, Five- and Ten-Year Prevalence, UK, 31st December 2006

1 Year Prevalence 5 Year Prevalence 10 Year Prevalence
Male 1,595 5,247 6,921
Female 1,294 4,175 5,544
Persons 2,889 9,422 12,465

Worldwide, it is estimated that there were more than 210,000 men and women still alive in 2008, up to five years after their diagnosis.[2]

References

  1. National Cancer Intelligence Network. One, Five and Ten Year Cancer Prevalence by Cancer Network, UK, 2006. London: NCIN, 2010.
  2. Ferlay J, Steliarova-Foucher E, Lortet-Tieulent J, et al.Cancer incidence and mortality patterns in Europe: Estimates for 40 countries in 2012. European Journal of Cancer (2013) 49, 1374-1403.
Last reviewed:

Some otherwise healthy people can produce myeloma-causing cells, resulting in the asymptomatic condition MGUS. Rates of progression Open a glossary item from MGUS to myeloma are low at around 1% per year,[1] but all myeloma patients have MGUS as a precursor to their myeloma.[2]

Although cases of MGUS are not systematically recorded by the UK cancer registries Open a glossary item, information on these diagnoses is routinely collected in the Haematological Malignancy Research Network (HMRN) region in the north of England. In 2004-2009 there were on average 4.9 cases of MGUS per 100,000 people per year.[3] Like myeloma, MGUS is more common in men than women, with average age-standardised Open a glossary item rates of 6.3 cases per 100,000 men and 3.5 cases per 100,000 women in the HMRN region in 2004-2010.[3]

UK estimates based on data from the HMRN region show that the age and sex distribution of MGUS patients is very similar to that of myeloma patients.[3]

Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance (MGUS, ICD-O-3 9765/1), Average Number of New Cases Per Year and Age-Specific Incidence Rates, UK estimates based on data from HMRN region, 2004-2010

MGUS prevalence has been found to be twice as high in black Ghanaian men,[4] and in black men of African origin living in America, compared with white men, suggesting that race-related susceptibility to MGUS and myeloma could be genetic rather than due to environmental factors.[5]

Last reviewed:

Around 39,000 new cases of myeloma (C88 and C90) were diagnosed in Europe in 2012 (1% of total cancer cases). In Europe (2012), the highest World age-standardised Open a glossary item incidence rates for myeloma are in Norway for both men and women; the lowest rates are in Albania for men and Bosnia Herzegovina for women. UK myeloma incidence rates are estimated to be the ninth highest in males in Europe, and eighth highest in females.[1] These data are broadly in line with Europe-specific data available elsewhere.[2]

More than 114,000 new cases of myeloma (C88 and C90) were diagnosed worldwide in 2012 (0.8% of total cancer cases). Myeloma incidence rates are highest in Australia/New Zealand and lowest in Western Africa, but this partly reflects varying data quality worldwide.[1]

Variation between countries may reflect prevalence of risk factors, use of screening, and diagnostic methods.

References

  1. Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2013. Available from: http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed December 2013.
  2. Ferlay J, Steliarova-Foucher E, Lortet-Tieulent J, et al.Cancer incidence and mortality patterns in Europe: Estimates for 40 countries in 2012. European Journal of Cancer (2013) 49, 1374-1403.
Last reviewed:

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