Myeloma incidence statistics

Cases

New cases of myeloma, 2013, UK

 

Proportion of all cases

Percentage myeloma is of total cancer cases, 2013, UK

 

Age

Age that around 6 in 10 of myeloma cases are diagnosed, 2011-2013, UK

 

Trend since 1970s

Myeloma incidence rates have increased since the late 1970s, GB

 

Myeloma is the 17th most common cancer in the UK (2013), accounting for around 2% of all new cases. In males, it is the 15th most common cancer (2% of all male cases) whilst it is the 18th in females (1% of all female cases).

In 2013, there were 5,497 new cases of myeloma in the UK: 3,142 (57%) in men and 2,355 (43%) in women, giving a male:female ratio of around 13:10.[1-4] The crude incidence rate Open a glossary item shows that there are 10 new myeloma cases for every 100,000 males in the UK and 7 for every 100,000 females.

The European age-standardised incidence (AS) rates Open a glossary item for both males and females are significantly higher in England compared to Scotland. Rates do not differ significantly between the other constituent countries of the UK for either sex.[1-4]

Myeloma (C90), Number of New Cases, Crude and European Age-Standardised (AS) Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2013

England Wales Scotland Northern Ireland UK
Male Cases 2,697 153 223 69 3,142
Crude Rate 10.2 10.1 8.6 7.7 10.0
AS Rate 12.4 11.2 10.3 10.8 12.1
AS Rate - 95% LCL 12.0 9.4 9.0 8.2 11.7
AS Rate - 95% UCL 12.9 12.9 11.7 13.3 12.6
Female Cases 2,006 132 168 49 2,355
Crude Rate 7.3 8.4 6.1 5.3 7.2
AS Rate 7.6 7.8 6.1 5.9 7.5
AS Rate - 95% LCL 7.3 6.5 5.1 4.2 7.2
AS Rate - 95% UCL 8.0 9.1 7.0 7.6 7.8
Persons Cases 4,703 285 391 118 5,497
Crude Rate 8.7 9.2 7.3 6.4 8.6
AS Rate 9.8 9.2 7.9 8.0 9.5
AS Rate - 95% LCL 9.5 8.2 7.1 6.6 9.3
AS Rate - 95% UCL 10.1 10.3 8.6 9.5 9.8

95% LCL and 95% UCL are the 95% lower and upper confidence limits Open a glossary item around the AS Rate Open a glossary item

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, February 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=59080.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, March 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.
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Myeloma incidence is strongly related to age, with the highest incidence rates being in older males and females. In the UK in 2011-2013, on average each year around 6 in 10 (59%) cases were diagnosed in people aged 70 and over.[1-4]

Incidence rates rise sharply from around age 55-59, with the highest rates in the 80-84 age group in males and the 85-89 age group in females, subsequently dropping. Incidence rates are higher for males than females in those aged 35-39 and 45-49 and over (the difference is not significant at younger ages or at age 40-44), and this gap is widest at age 90+, when the male:female ratio of age-specific incidence rate (to account for the different proportions of males to females in each age group) is around 19:10.[1-4]

Myeloma (C90), Average Number of New Cases per Year and Age-Specific Incidence Rates, UK, 2011-2013

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, February 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=59080.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, March 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.
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Myeloma incidence rates have increased by 66% in Great Britain since the late 1970s.[1-3] This includes a larger overall increase for males than for females.

For males, European age-standardised (AS) Open a glossary item rates increased by 67% between 1979-1981 and 2011-2013. For females, rates increased by 57% between 1979-1981 and 2011-2013.[1-3]

Myeloma (C90), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, Great Britain, 1979-2013​

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

Over the last decade in the UK (between 2002-2004 and 2011-2013), myeloma AS incidence rates have increased by 14% for males and females combined, with similar increases in males and females separately (both 13%).[1-4]

Myeloma (C90), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, UK, 1993-2013

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

Myeloma incidence trends probably reflect improvements in diagnostic techniques and data registration.[5-8]

Myeloma rates have increased overall for all of the broad age groups in Great Britain since the late 1970s.[1-3] The largest increases have been in people aged 80+, with European AS incidence rates increasing by 89% between 1979-1981 and 2011-2013. The smallest change has been in people aged 50-59, with European AS incidence rates rising by 37% between 1979-1981 and 2011-2013.[1-3]

Myeloma (C90), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, by Age, Great Britain, 1979-2013

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, February 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=59080
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, March 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/
  5. Renshaw C, Ketley N, Moller H, et al. Trends in the incidence and survival of multiple myeloma in South East England 1985-2004. BMC Cancer 2010;10:74.
  6. Kyle RA, Therneau TM, Rajkumar SV, et al. Incidence of multiple myeloma in Olmsted County, Minnesota: Trend over 6 decades. Cancer 2004;101(11):2667-74.
  7. Turesson I, Velez R, Kristinsson SY, et al. Patterns of multiple myeloma during the past 5 decades: stable incidence rates for all age groups in the population but rapidly changing age distribution in the clinic. Mayo Clin Proc 2010;85(3):225-30.
  8. Mistry M, Parkin DM, Ahmad AS, et al. Cancer incidence in the United Kingdom: projections to the year 2030. Brit J Cancer 2011;105(11):1795-803.
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The lifetime risk of developing myeloma is around 1 in 115 for men and around 1 in 155 for women, in 2012 in the UK.[1]

The lifetime risk for myeloma has been calculated on the assumption that the possibility of having more than one diagnosis of myeloma over the course of a lifetime is very low (‘Current Probability’ method).[2]

References

  1. Lifetime risk estimates calculated by the Statistical Information Team at Cancer Research UK. Based on data provided by the Office of National Statistics, ISD Scotland, the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit and the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry, on request, December 2013 to July 2014.
  2. Esteve J, Benhamou E and Raymond L. Descriptive epidemiology. IARC Scientific Publications No.128, Lyon, International Agency for Research on Cancer, pp 67-68 1994.
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Around 39,000 new cases of myeloma (C88 and C90) were diagnosed in Europe in 2012 (1% of total cancer cases). In Europe (2012), the highest World age-standardised Open a glossary item incidence rates for myeloma are in Norway for both men and women; the lowest rates are in Albania for men and Bosnia Herzegovina for women. UK myeloma incidence rates are estimated to be the ninth highest in males in Europe, and eighth highest in females.[1] These data are broadly in line with Europe-specific data available elsewhere.[2]

More than 114,000 new cases of myeloma (C88 and C90) were diagnosed worldwide in 2012 (0.8% of total cancer cases). Myeloma incidence rates are highest in Australia/New Zealand and lowest in Western Africa, but this partly reflects varying data quality worldwide.[1]

Variation between countries may reflect prevalence of risk factors, use of screening, and diagnostic methods.

References

  1. Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2013. Available from: http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed December 2013.
  2. Ferlay J, Steliarova-Foucher E, Lortet-Tieulent J, et al.Cancer incidence and mortality patterns in Europe: Estimates for 40 countries in 2012. European Journal of Cancer (2013) 49, 1374-1403.
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There is no evidence for an association between myeloma incidence and deprivation for either males or females in England.[1] England-wide data for 2006-2010 show European age-standardised  incidence rates are similar for both males and females living in the most deprived areas compared with the least deprived.[1]

Myeloma (C90), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates by Deprivation Quintile, England, 2006-2010

The estimated deprivation gradient in myeloma incidence between people living in the most and least deprived areas in England has not changed in the period 1996-2010.[1]

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Some otherwise healthy people can produce myeloma-causing cells, resulting in the asymptomatic condition MGUS. Rates of progression Open a glossary item from MGUS to myeloma are low at around 1% per year,[1] but all myeloma patients have MGUS as a precursor to their myeloma.[2]

Although cases of MGUS are not systematically recorded by the UK cancer registries Open a glossary item, information on these diagnoses is routinely collected in the Haematological Malignancy Research Network (HMRN) region in the north of England. In 2004-2009 there were on average 4.9 cases of MGUS per 100,000 people per year.[3] Like myeloma, MGUS is more common in men than women, with average age-standardised Open a glossary item rates of 6.3 cases per 100,000 men and 3.5 cases per 100,000 women in the HMRN region in 2004-2010.[3]

UK estimates based on data from the HMRN region show that the age and sex distribution of MGUS patients is very similar to that of myeloma patients.[3]

Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance (MGUS, ICD-O-3 9765/1), Average Number of New Cases Per Year and Age-Specific Incidence Rates, UK estimates based on data from HMRN region, 2004-2010

MGUS prevalence has been found to be twice as high in black Ghanaian men,[4] and in black men of African origin living in America, compared with white men, suggesting that race-related susceptibility to MGUS and myeloma could be genetic rather than due to environmental factors.[5]

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Age-standardised Open a glossary item rates for White males with myeloma (ICD-10 C88-C90) range from 6.1 to 6.5 per 100,000. Rates for Asian males are similar, ranging from 3.6 to 6.4 per 100,000, whereas the rates for Black males are significantly higher, ranging from 10.9 to 18.2 per 100,000. For females there is a similar pattern - the age-standardised rates for White females range from 3.9 to 4.2 per 100,000. Rates for Asian females are similar, ranging from 2.3 to 4.4 per 100,000, whereas the rates for Black females are significantly higher, ranging from 6.6 to 11.5 per 100,000.[1]

Ranges are given because of the analysis methodology used to account for missing and unknown data. For myeloma, 17,357 cases were identified; 18% had no known ethnicity.

A similar ethnic pattern has been observed in the UK for almost 40 years, with myeloma occurring around twice as frequently in African Americans as Caucasians.[2] It appears that, in comparison with white people, black people have younger myeloma onset,[3] and a higher incidence of MGUS (though no difference in progression risk).[4,5] However, the reasons underpinning these ethnic differences have yet to be explained, and are currently the subject of much research.[4,6]

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In the UK around 12,500 people were still alive at the end of 2006, up to ten years after being diagnosed with myeloma.[1]

Myeloma (C88 and C90), One-, Five- and Ten-Year Prevalence, UK, 31st December 2006

1 Year Prevalence 5 Year Prevalence 10 Year Prevalence
Male 1,595 5,247 6,921
Female 1,294 4,175 5,544
Persons 2,889 9,422 12,465

Worldwide, it is estimated that there were more than 210,000 men and women still alive in 2008, up to five years after their diagnosis.[2]

References

  1. National Cancer Intelligence Network. One, Five and Ten Year Cancer Prevalence by Cancer Network, UK, 2006. London: NCIN, 2010.
  2. Ferlay J, Steliarova-Foucher E, Lortet-Tieulent J, et al.Cancer incidence and mortality patterns in Europe: Estimates for 40 countries in 2012. European Journal of Cancer (2013) 49, 1374-1403.
Last reviewed:

Cancer Statistics Explained

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