Hodgkin lymphoma incidence statistics

Cases

New cases of Hodgkin lymphoma, 2013, UK

 

Proportion of all cases

Percentage Hodgkin lymphoma is of total cancer cases, 2013, UK

 

Age

Age that around half of Hodgkin lymphoma cases are diagnosed, 2011-2013, UK

 

Trend since 1970s

Hodgkin lymphoma incidence rates have changed differently for each sex since the late 1970s, GB

 

Hodgkin lymphoma accounts for less than 1% of all cancers in the UK (2013).[1-4]

In 2013, there were 1,954 new cases of Hodgkin lymphoma in the UK: 1,100 (56%) in males and 854 (44%) in females, giving a male:female ratio of around 13:10.[1-4] The crude incidence rate Open a glossary item shows that there are 4 new Hodgkin lymphoma cases for every 100,000 males in the UK and 3 for every 100,000 females.

The European age-standardised incidence rate Open a glossary item (AS rate) in females is significantly lower in England compared to Northern Ireland. Rates do not differ significantly between the other constituent countries of the UK, for either sex.[1-4]

Hodgkin Lymphoma (C81), Number of New Cases, Crude and European Age-Standardised (AS) Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2013

England Wales Scotland Northern Ireland UK
Male Cases 905 56 95 44 1,100
Crude Rate 3.4 3.7 3.7 4.9 3.5
AS Rate 3.6 3.7 3.9 5.5 3.6
AS Rate - 95% LCL 3.3 2.7 3.1 3.9 3.4
AS Rate - 95% UCL 3.8 4.7 4.6 7.2 3.8
Female Cases 726 32 69 27 854
Crude Rate 2.7 2.0 2.5 2.9 2.6
AS Rate 2.7 2.0 2.5 2.9 2.6
AS Rate - 95% LCL 2.5 1.3 1.9 1.8 2.5
AS Rate - 95% UCL 2.9 2.7 3.1 4.1 2.8
Persons Cases 1,631 88 164 71 1,954
Crude Rate 3.0 2.9 3.1 3.9 3.0
AS Rate 3.1 2.8 3.1 4.2 3.1
AS Rate - 95% LCL 2.9 2.2 2.6 3.2 3.0
AS Rate - 95% UCL 3.2 3.4 3.6 5.1 3.2

95% LCL and 95% UCL are the 95% lower and upper confidence limits Open a glossary item around the AS Rate Open a glossary item

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

Although there is variation in Hodgkin lymphoma incidence across the UK [6,7] this variation appears to be mostly artefactual, reflecting differences in registration methods, diagnosis and classification.[7]

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, February 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=59080.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, March 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.
  5. NCIN. Cancer Incidence and Mortality by Cancer Network, UK, 2005. London: NCIN; 2008
  6. NCIN. Data on haematological cancers by cancer network, England, 2001-2008 – Atlas (Accessed January 2014
  7. Haematological Malignancy Research Network. Haematological malignancies & cancer registration in England (2004-2008). Quality appraisal comparing data from the National Cancer Data Repository (NCDR) with the population-based Haematological Malignancy Research Network (HMRN). Final Report. London: Leukaemia & Lymphoma Research; 2012
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Hodgkin lymphoma incidence shows a clear bimodal age distribution, with the first peak in incidence rates in young adults, and the second peak in older males and females. In the UK in 2011-2013, on average each year around half (49%) of cases were diagnosed in people aged 45 and over.[1-4]

Age-specific incidence rates rise sharply during childhood and peak first in young adults aged 20-24. For females this is the highest peak. Rates then decrease until middle age before rising again to reach a second peak in males and females aged 75-79. For males this is the highest peak. Incidence rates are higher for males than for females aged 0-4 and 30-34 to 70-74 and this gap is widest at the age of 0-4, when the male:female incidence ratio of age-specific rates (to account for the different proportions of males to females in each age group) is around 106:10.[1-4]

Hodgkin Lymphoma (C81), Average Number of New Cases Per Year and Age-Specific Incidence Rates, UK, 2011-2013

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, February 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=59080.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, March 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.
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Hodgkin lymphoma incidence rates have increased by 7% in Great Britain since the late 1970s.[1-3] However this includes an overall increase for females and stable rates for males, and for both sexes there has been a decrease followed by an increase in this period.

For males, European age-standardised (AS) Open a glossary item incidence rates decreased by 21% between 1979-1981 and 1995-1997, then increased by 27% between 1995-1997 and 2011-2013 – leaving rates in 2011-2013 similar to those in 1979-1981. For females, rates decreased by 16% between 1979-1981 and 1989-1991, then increased by 37% between 1989-1991 and 2011-2013 – leaving rates 15% higher in 2011-2013 compared with 1979-1981.

Hodgkin Lymphoma (C81), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, Great Britain, 1979-2013

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

Over the last decade in the UK (between 2002-2004 and 2011-2013), Hodgkin lymphoma AS incidence rates have increased by 20% for males and females combined, with similar increases in males (18%) and females (22%) separately.[1-4]

Hodgkin Lymphoma (C81), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, UK, 1993-2013

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

Hodgkin lymphoma incidence trends probably reflect improvements in diagnostic techniques and data registration.[5-8]

Hodgkin lymphoma incidence rates have remained stable overall for most broad adult age groups in Great Britain since the late 1970s, though there has been a slight increase in children, teenagers and young adults.[1-3] In people aged 0-24, European AS incidence rates increased overall by 20% between 1979-1981 and2011-2013, with most of this increase in the last decade. In the older age groups (25-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, and 80+), rates decreased between the late 1970s and mid-1990s; and have since increased; the most pronounced changes have been in the 70-79 age group, where rates dropped by 44% between 1979-1981 and 1993-1995, then rose by 92% between 1993-1995 and 2007-2009, and have since remained stable.

Hodgkin Lymphoma (C81), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, by Age, Great Britain, 1979-2013

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, February 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=59080.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, March 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/
  5. Haematological Malignancy Research Network. Haematological malignancies cancer registration in England (2004-2008). Quality appraisal comparing data from the National Cancer Data Repository (NCDR) with the population-based Haematological Malignancy Research Network (HMRN). Final Report. London: Leukaemia & Lymphoma Research; 2012.
  6. Adamson P, Bray F, Costantini AS, et al. Time trends in the registration of Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas in Europe. Eur J Cancer 2007;43:391-401.
  7. Roman E, Smith AG. Epidemiology of lymphomas. Histopathology 2011.
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Staging for Hodgkin lymphoma most commonly uses the Ann Arbor system.[1]

Data by stage are not yet routinely available for the UK due to inconsistencies in the collecting and recording of staging data in the past. However this is improving and plans for a nationally consistent dataset in England are underway.[2] In the meantime, incidence by stage is available for the former Anglia Cancer Network in the east of England for the period 2004-2008.[3] Anglia covers around 5% of the population of England and may not be representative of the country as a whole due to differences in underlying demographic factors (such as age, deprivation or ethnicity), as well as variation in local healthcare provision standards and policies.

Over half (55%) of men and women diagnosed with Hodgkin lymphoma present at stage I or II.[3] For around a sixth (17%) of patients, the stage is not known.

Hodgkin Lymphoma (C81), Proportion of Cases Diagnosed at Each Stage, Adults (Aged 15-99), Former Anglia Cancer Network, 2004-2008

Stage at Diagnosis Proportion of cases
Stage I 24.4%
Stage II 30.8%
Stage III 15.4%
Stage IV 12.8%
Stage not known 16.7%

Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

References

  1. Smithers DW. Summary of papers delivered at the Conference on Staging in Hodgkin's Disease (Ann Arbor). Cancer Res 1971; 31(11):1869-70.
  2. Department of Health. Improving outcomes: a strategy for cancer. London: Department of Health; 2011.
  3. Data were provided by The National Cancer Registration Service, Eastern Office on request.
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The lifetime risk of developing Hodgkin lymphoma is around 1 in 370 for men and around 1 in 490 for women, in 2012 in the UK.[1]

The lifetime risk for Hodgkin lymphoma has been calculated on the assumption that the possibility of having more than one diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma over the course of a lifetime is very low (‘Current Probability’ method).[2]

References

  1. Lifetime risk estimates calculated by the Statistical Information Team at Cancer Research UK. Based on data provided by the Office of National Statistics, ISD Scotland, the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit and the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry, on request, December 2013 to July 2014.
  2. Esteve J, Benhamou E and Raymond L. Descriptive epidemiology. IARC Scientific Publications No.128, Lyon, International Agency for Research on Cancer, pp 67-68 1994.
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Around 17,600 new cases of Hodgkin lymphoma were diagnosed in Europe in 2012 (0.5% of total cancer cases). In Europe (2012), the highest World age-standardised Open a glossary item incidence rates for Hodgkin lymphoma are in Croatia for both men and women; the lowest rates are in Iceland for men and Albania for women. UK Hodgkin lymphoma incidence rates are estimated to be the 6th highest in males in Europe, and 20th lowest in females.[1] These data are broadly in line with Europe-specific data available elsewhere.[2]

Around 66,000 new cases of Hodgkin lymphoma were diagnosed worldwide in 2012 (0.5% of total cancer cases). Hodgkin lymphoma incidence rates are highest in Northern America and lowest in Eastern Asia, but this partly reflects varying data quality worldwide.[1]

Variation between countries may reflect different prevalence of risk factors, use of screening and diagnostic methods.

References

  1. Ferlay J, Steliarova-Foucher E, Lortet-Tieulent J, et al.Cancer incidence and mortality patterns in Europe: Estimates for 40 countries in 2012. European Journal of Cancer (2013) 49, 1374-1403.
  2. Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2013. Available from: http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed December 2013.
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There is evidence for an association between Hodgkin lymphoma incidence and deprivation for males in England, but there is no evidence for an association for females.[1] England-wide data for 2006-2010 show European age-standardised  incidence rates are 20% higher for males living in the most deprived areas compared with the least deprived, but for females the rates are similar for those living in the least and most deprived areas.[1]

Hodgkin Lymphoma (C81), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates by Deprivation Quintile, England, 2006-2010

For males diagnosed with Hodgkin lymphoma the deprivation gradient has gone from having higher incidence rates in the less deprived in 1996-2000 to having higher incidence rates in the more deprived in 2006-2010. The estimated deprivation gradient in Hodgkin lymphoma incidence between females living in the most and least deprived areas in England has not changed in the period 1996-2010.

It has been estimated that there would have been around 50 more cancer cases each year amongst males in England during 2006-2010 if all males experienced the same incidence rates as the least deprived.[1]

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Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes can be divided into two broad groups: Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (ICD-10 C81.1, C81.2, C81.3), which accounted for 60% of all Hodgkin lymphoma cases diagnosed in the UK in 2010-2012, and nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (ICD-10 C81.0), which accounted for 10% of cases. The remaining 29% of Hodgkin lymphoma cases in the UK in 2010-2012 were of other or unspecified Hodgkin lymphoma types (ICD-10 C81.7, C81.9).[1-4]

Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes, Annual Average Number of New Cases, European Age-Standardised (AS) Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2010-2012

  Classical Hodgkin lymphoma Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma Other and unspecified Hodgkin lymphoma
Male Cases 606 142 310
AS Rate (95% LCL-95% UCL) 2.0 (1.9-2.1) 0.5 (0.4-0.5) 1.1 (1.0-1.1)
Female Cases 513 51 234
AS Rate (95% LCL-95% UCL) 1.6 (1.6-1.7) 0.2 (0.1-0.2) 0.7 (0.7-0.8)
Persons Cases 1119 194 543
AS Rate (95% LCL-95% UCL) 1.8 (1.7-1.8) 0.3 (0.3-0.3) 0.9 (0.9-0.9)

95% LCL and 95% UCL are the 95% lower and upper confidence limits Open a glossary item around the AS Rate Open a glossary item

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, February 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=59080
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, March 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.
Last reviewed:

Age-standardised Open a glossary item rates for White males with Hodgkin lymphoma range from 2.7 to 3.0 per 100,000. Rates for Asian males are similar, ranging from 2.7 to 4.7 per 100,000 and the rates for Black males are also similar, ranging from 1.8 to 3.8 per 100,000. For females there is a similar pattern - the age-standardised rates for White females range from 1.9 to 2.2 per 100,000, and rates for Asian and Black females are also similar ranging from 1.6 to 2.9 per 100,000 and 1.3 to 2.7 per 100,000 respectively.[1] There appears to be no significant variation in Hodgkin lymphoma incidence by ethnicity in the UK.

Ranges are given because of the analysis methodology used to account for missing and unknown data. For Hodgkin lymphoma, 6,399 cases were identified; 17% had no known ethnicity.

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In the UK around 11,500 people were still alive at the end of 2006, up to ten years after being diagnosed with Hodgkin Lymphoma.[1]

Hodgkin Lymphoma (C81), One, Five and Ten year Prevalence, UK, 31st December 2006

1 Year Prevalence 5 Year Prevalence 10 Year Prevalence
Male 792 3,497 6,536
Female 645 2,693 4,959
Persons 1,437 6,190 11,495

Worldwide, it is estimated that there were more than 196,000 men and women still alive in 2008, up to five years after their diagnosis.[2]

References

  1. National Cancer Intelligence Network (NCIN). One, Five and Ten Year Cancer Prevalence (June 2010)
  2. Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, et al. GLOBOCAN 2008 v1.2, Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 10 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2010. Available from: http://globocan.iarc.fr
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