42% (44% in males and 37% in females) of bladder cancer cases each year in the UK are linked to major lifestyle and other risk factors
Bladder cancer risk is associated with a number of risk factors[2,3].
Bladder Cancer Risk Factors
|Increases risk ('sufficient' or 'convincing' evidence)||May increase risk ('limited' or 'probable' evidence)||Decreases risk ('sufficient' or 'convincing' evidence)||May decrease risk ('limited' or 'probable' evidence)|
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and The World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) classifications. Find out more about IARC and WCRF/AICR classifications.
a Arsenic in drinking water is classified by WCRF/AICR as a possible cause of bladder cancer based on limited-suggestive evidence
- Parkin DM, Boyd L, Walker LC. 16. The fraction of cancer attributable to lifestyle and environmental factors in the UK in 2010. Br J Cancer 2011;105(S2):S77-S81.
- International Agency for Research on Cancer. List of Classifications by cancer sites with sufficient or limited evidence in humans, Volumes 1 to 105*. Available from: http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php. Accessed August 2014.
- World Cancer Research Fund / American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR). Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective. Washington DC: AICR, 2007.