42% (44% in males and 37% in females) of bladder cancer cases each year in the UK are linked to major lifestyle and other risk factors
Bladder cancer risk is associated with a number of risk factors[2,3].
Bladder Cancer Risk Factors
|Increases risk||Decreases risk|
|'Sufficient' or 'Convincing' evidence||
|'Limited' or 'probable' evidence||
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and The World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) classifications.
a WCRF/AICR classifies evidence on arsenic in drinking water as probable
- Parkin DM, Boyd L, Walker LC. 16. The fraction of cancer attributable to lifestyle and environmental factors in the UK in 2010. Br J Cancer 2011;105(S2):S77-S81.
- International Agency for Research on Cancer. List of Classifications by cancer sites with sufficient or limited evidence in humans, Volumes 1 to 116*. Accessed October 2016.
- World Cancer Research Fund / American Institute for Cancer Research. Continuous Update Project Findings & Reports. Accessed October 2016.