Bladder cancer incidence statistics

Cases

New cases of bladder cancer, 2013, UK

 

Proportion of all cases

Percentage bladder cancer is of total cancer cases, 2013, UK

 

Age

Age that more than half of bladder cancer cases are diagnosed, 2011-2013, UK

 

Trend since 1970s

Bladder cancer incidence rates have decreased since the late 1970s, GB

 

Bladder cancer is the ninth most common cancer in the UK (2013), accounting for 3% of all new cases. In males, it is the fourth most common cancer (4% of all male cases), whilst it is the 14th most common cancer in females (2% of female cases).[1-4]

In 2013, there were 10,341 new cases of bladder cancer in the UK: 7,465 (72%) in males and 2,876 (28%) in females, giving a male:female ratio of around 25:10.[1-4] The crude incidence rate Open a glossary item shows that there are 24 new bladder cancer cases for every 100,000 males in the UK, and 9 for every 100,000 females.

The European age-standardised incidence rate Open a glossary item (AS rate) in males, is significantly higher in England compared with Scotland.[1-4] Rates for females are similar across all the constituent countries of the UK.

Bladder Cancer (C67), Number of New Cases, Crude and European Age-Standardised (AS) Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2013

England Wales Scotland Northern Ireland UK
Male Cases 6,348 422 538 157 7,465
Crude Rate 23.9 27.9 20.8 17.5 23.7
AS Rate 30.3 31.7 26.6 26.3 30.0
AS Rate - 95% LCL 29.6 28.7 24.4 22.2 29.3
AS Rate - 95% UCL 31.1 34.7 28.9 30.4 30.7
Female Cases 2,396 162 259 59 2,876
Crude Rate 8.8 10.3 9.4 6.3 8.8
AS Rate 8.9 9.5 9.3 7.3 8.9
AS Rate - 95% LCL 8.6 8.0 8.2 5.4 8.6
AS Rate - 95% UCL 9.3 11.0 10.5 9.1 9.3
Persons Cases 8,744 584 797 216 10,341
Crude Rate 16.2 18.9 15.0 11.8 16.1
AS Rate 18.3 19.1 16.4 14.9 18.1
AS Rate - 95% LCL 17.9 17.6 15.2 12.9 17.7
AS Rate - 95% UCL 18.7 20.7 17.5 16.9 18.4

95% LCL and 95% UCL are the 95% lower and upper confidence limits Open a glossary item around the AS Rate Open a glossary item

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

Bladder cancer incidence rates across the former cancer networks throughout the UK vary significantly, with higher than average rates within England in many parts of the north, and lower than average rates in parts of the south.[5,6] Geographical differences in bladder cancer registration may partly explain these incidence patterns.[7]

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, February 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=59080.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, March 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.
  5. National Cancer Intelligence Network (NCIN). Cancer Incidence and Mortality by Cancer Network, UK, 2005. London: NCIN; 2008.
  6. National Cancer Intelligence Network (NCIN). Cancer e-Atlas. Accessed January 2014.
  7. Quinn M, Wood H, Cooper N, Rowan S, eds. Cancer Atlas of the United Kingdom and Ireland 1991–2000. Studies on Medical and Population Subjects No. 68. London: ONS; 2005.
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Bladder cancer incidence is strongly related to age, with the highest incidence rates being in older males and females. In the UK in 2011-2013, on average each year more than half (54%) of cases were diagnosed in people aged 75 and over.[1-4]

Age-specific incidence rates rise gradually from around age 50-54 in both males and females, with a sharper rise in males from age 60-64, peaking in males and females in the 90+ age group. Incidence rates are higher for males than for females in those aged 40-44 and over (the difference is not significant in younger age groups) and this gap is widest at age 80-84, when the male:female incidence ratio of age-specific rates (to account for the different proportions of males to females in each age group) is around 36:10.[1-4]

Bladder Cancer (C67), Average Number of New Cases per Year and Age-Specific Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2011-2013

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, February 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=59080.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, March 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.
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Bladder cancer incidence rates have decreased by 27% in Great Britain since the late 1970s.[1-3] This includes a larger decrease for males than for females, and for both sexes there has been an increase followed by a decrease during this time.

For males, European age-standardised (AS) Open a glossary item incidence rates increased by 17% between 1979-1981 and 1992-1994, and have since decreased by 40% (between 1992-1994 and 2011-2013). The trend is similar for females, with rates increasing by 23% between 1979-1981 and 1992-1994, and since decreasing by 34% (between 1992-1994 and 2011-2013).

Bladder Cancer (C67), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, Great Britain, 1979-2013

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

Over the last decade in the UK (between 2002-2004 and 2011-2013), bladder cancer AS incidence rates have decreased by 10% for both sexes combined, and by 13% and 10% in males and females respectively.[1-4]

Bladder Cancer (C67), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, UK, 1993-2013

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

Bladder cancer incidence trends probably reflect changing prevalence of risk factors, with recent incidence trends influenced by risk factor prevalence in years past. Changes in data registration probably also play a part.[5-8]

Bladder cancer incidence rates have decreased overall for all of the broad age groups in males in Great Britain since the late 1970s, except for men aged 80+ in whom rates are now similar to the late 1970s.[3-5] For most age groups this period includes an increase until the 1990s, followed by a decrease. The largest increase during the 1970s and 1990s was in men aged 80+, in whom European AS incidence rates rose by 35% between 1979-1981 and 1993-1995. This was followed by a steady decrease between 1993-1995 and 2002-2004, with rates decreasing by 24%, and a subsequent plateau.

Bladder Cancer (C67), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, Males, by Age, Great Britain, 1979-2013

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

Bladder cancer incidence rates have also decreased overall for all of the broad age groups in females in Great Britain since the late 1970s, except for females aged 80+ in whom rates are now higher.[3-5] Again for most age groups this period includes an increase until the 1990s, followed by a decrease. The largest increase was in females aged 80+, in whom European AS incidence rates rose by 39% between 1979-1981 and 1995-1997. This was followed by a steady decrease between 1995-1997 and 2003-2005, with rates decreasing by 14%, and a subsequent plateau.

Bladder Cancer (C67), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, Females, by Age, Great Britain, 1979-2013

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, February 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=59080.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, March 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/
  5. United Kingdom and Ireland Association of Cancer Registries. UKIACR Quality and Performance Indicators 2010
  6. Shah A, Rachet B, Mitry E, et al. Survival from bladder cancer in England and Wales up to 2001. Br J Cancer 2008; 99(S1):S86-9
  7. Pelucchi C, Bosetti C, Negri E, et al. Mechanisms of disease: The epidemiology of bladder cancer. Nat Clin Pract Urol 2006;3(6):327-40.
  8. Ferlay, J, Randi G, Bosetti C et al. Declining mortality from bladder cancer in Europe. BJU Int 2008;101(1):11-9
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Staging completeness for bladder cancer is moderate in England, with 75% of bladder cancers recorded with a known stage at diagnosis in 2013.[1]

Bladder Cancer (C67), Proportion of Cases Diagnosed at Each Stage, England 2013

People diagnosed with bladder cancer with a known stage most commonly present at stage I (47%), in England. More people with a known stage are diagnosed at an early stage (74% diagnosed at stage I or II) than an advanced stage (26% diagnosed at stage III or IV). Around 1 in 5 (18%) people have metastases Open a glossary item at diagnosis (stage IV).[1]

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The lifetime risk of developing bladder cancer is 1 in 39 for men and around 1 in 110 for women, in 2012 in the UK.[1]

The lifetime risk for bladder cancer has been calculated to account for the possibility that someone can have more than one diagnosis of bladder cancer over the course of their lifetime (‘Adjusted for Multiple Primaries’ (AMP) method).[2]

References

  1. Lifetime risk estimates calculated by the Statistical Information Team at Cancer Research UK. Based on data provided by the Office of National Statistics, ISD Scotland, the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit and the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry, on request, December 2013 to July 2014.
  2. Sasieni PD, Shelton J, Ormiston-Smith N, et al. What is the lifetime risk of developing cancer?: The effect of adjusting for multiple primaries. Br J Cancer, 2011. 105(3): p. 460-5.
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Bladder cancer is the 5th most common cancer in Europe, with more than 151,000 new cases diagnosed in 2012 (4% of the total). In Europe (2012), the highest World age-standardised incidence rates for bladder cancer are in Belgium for men and Hungary for women; the lowest rates are in the United Kingdom for men and the Ukraine for women. UK bladder cancer incidence rates are estimated to be the lowest in males in Europe, and 13th lowest in females.[1] These data are broadly in line with Europe-specific data available elsewhere.[2]

Bladder cancer is the 9th most common cancer worldwide, with around 429,800 new cases diagnosed in 2012 (3% of the total). Bladder cancer incidence rates are highest in Southern Europe and lowest in Western Africa, but this partly reflects varying data quality worldwide.[1]

Variation between countries may reflect difference prevalence of risk factors, use of screening, and diagnostic methods.

References

  1. Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2013. Available from: http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed December 2013.
  2. Ferlay J, Steliarova-Foucher E, Lortet-Tieulent J, et al.Cancer incidence and mortality patterns in Europe: Estimates for 40 countries in 2012. European Journal of Cancer (2013) 49, 1374-1403.
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There is evidence for an association between bladder cancer incidence and deprivation for both males and females in England.[1] England-wide data for 2006-2010 show European age-standardised Open a glossary item  incidence rates are 27% higher for males living in the most deprived areas compared with the least deprived, and 43% higher for females.[1]

Bladder Cancer (C67), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates by Deprivation Quintile, England, 2006-2010

The estimated deprivation gradient in bladder cancer incidence between people living in the most and least deprived areas in England has not changed in the period 1996-2010.[1] It has been estimated that there would have been around 730 fewer cancer cases each year in England during 2006-2010 if all people experienced the same incidence rates as the least deprived.[1

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Age-standardised rates for White males with bladder cancer range from 19.9 to 20.5 per 100,000. Rates for Asian males are significantly lower, ranging from 6.5 to 10.1 per 100,000 and the rates for Black males are also significantly lower, ranging from 5.6 to 9.6 per 100,000. For females there is a similar pattern - the age-standardised rates for White females range from 5.7 to 6.0 per 100,000, and rates for Asian and Black females are also significantly lower ranging from 1.3 to 2.7 per 100,000 and 1.6 to 3.7 per 100,000 respectively.[1]

Ranges are given because of the analysis methodology used to account for missing and unknown data. For bladder cancer, 42,339 cases were identified; 14% had no known ethnicity.

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In the UK more than 46,500 people were still alive at the end of 2006, up to ten years after being diagnosed with bladder cancer.[1]

Bladder Cancer (C67), One, Five and Ten Year Cancer Prevalence, UK, 31st December 2006

1 Year Prevalence 5 Year Prevalence 10 Year Prevalence
Male 5,514 20,040 34,932
Female 1,913 6,453 11,608
Persons 7,427 26,493 46,540

Worldwide, it is estimated that there were nearly 1.2 million cancer patients still alive in 2008, up to five years after their diagnosis.[2]

References

  1. National Cancer Intelligence Network (NCIN). One, Five and Ten Year Cancer Prevalence by Cancer Network, UK, 2006. London: NCIN; 2010.
  2. Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, Forman D, Mathers C, Parkin DM. GLOBOCAN 2008 v1.2, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No.10 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): 2010. Available from http://globocan.iarc.fr. Accessed May 2011.
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Cancer Statistics Explained

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