Eye cancer research
This page is about research into the treatments for eye cancer. You can find the following information
Eye cancer research
All treatments must be fully researched before they can be adopted as standard treatment for everyone. This is so that we can be sure they work better than the treatments we already use. And so we know that they are safe.
First of all, treatments are developed and tested in laboratories. Only after we know that they are likely to be safe to test are they tested in people, in clinical trials. Cancer Research UK supports a lot of UK laboratory research into cancer and also supports many UK and international clinical trials.
Researchers are looking at gene changes to help find out why some people develop eye cancers. They are also looking at the different gene changes in eye melanoma that can help doctors predict outlook and may help find new treatments.
You can view and print the quick guides for all the pages in the treating eye cancer section.
All potential new treatments have to be fully researched before they can be used as standard treatment for everyone. This is so that
- We can be sure they work
- We can be sure they work better than the treatments that are already available
- They are known to be safe
At first, treatments are developed and tested in laboratories. For ethical and safety reasons, experimental treatments must be tested in the laboratory before they can be tried in patients. If a treatment described here is said to be at the laboratory stage of research, it is not ready for patients and is not available either within or outside the NHS. Cancer Research UK supports a lot of UK laboratory research into cancer.
Tests of treatments on patients are called clinical trials. Cancer Research UK supports many UK and international clinical trials.
In our trials and research section there is information about clinical trials, including the 4 phases of trials. In that section you can search for trials for eye cancer using the clinical trials database. If there is a trial you are interested in, print it off and take it to your own specialist. If the trial is suitable for you, your doctor will need to refer you to the research team. The database also has information about closed trials and trial results.
Everything covered on this page is the subject of ongoing research. Until studies are completed and new effective treatments are found, these experimental treatments cannot be used as standard therapy for eye cancers.
Here is a video on what it's like to take part in a clinical trial:
View a transcript of the video (Opens in a new window)
Researchers are studying tissue samples from different types of eye cancer to find out why some people develop them, and to find out how the cancers behave. This can help doctors to predict someone's outlook and in the future may help with treatment decisions. Research into the genetics of eye cancer may also help them to develop new treatments in the future. Studies looking into this include the PROGENOM study and a study looking into the genetics of cancers of the eyelid. The eyelid study has now closed and we are waiting for the results.
Researchers have also found that many uveal melanomas have changes to 2 genes called GNAQ and GNA11. The proteins made by these genes are part of a signalling pathway inside cells (called MEK) that helps them grow. From this, researchers are now looking into types of biological therapy that can target proteins in this pathway, to try to stop cancer cells growing.
Researchers are also looking into genes to find people who are at increased risk of developing eye cancer. They have recently found that a change (mutation) in the BAP1 gene can be passed down (inherited) in some families. This mutation increases the risk of uveal melanoma, melanoma of the skin and some other types of cancer. This is a rare inherited genetic mutation, and only affects a small number of people with eye melanoma.
Doctors are looking into different types of biological therapies to treat eye cancers.
The NITRO trial is looking at a type of biological therapy called ranibizumab for uveal melanoma. Ranibizumab is a monoclonal antibody. It works by targeting a protein on the cancer cell called vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The aims of the trial are to see how well ranibizumab works for uveal melanoma and what the side effects are. This trial has now closed and we are waiting for the results.
Another monoclonal antibody is bevacizumab. It stops the growth of new blood vessels. Doctors may use it to treat radiotherapy side effects to the eye. Researchers are looking at using it to treat advanced eye melanomas, either on its own or with chemotherapy.
Selumetinib is a type of biological therapy called a MEK inhibitor. MEK is a body protein that sends signals to cells telling them to divide and grow. Blocking MEK may also stop cancer cells growing.
In June 2013, a phase 2 American clinical trial found that selumetinib was more successful than temozolomide in treating patients with advanced uveal melanoma. These results are very promising.
In the UK, a phase 2 trial called SelPec is now looking at selumetinib and paclitaxel chemotherapy for advanced uveal melanoma. The research team want to find out if the combination of drugs works better than selumetinib on its own. They also want to find the best way of giving these 2 drugs together.
Vorinostat is a type of cancer growth blocker called histone deacetylase inhibitor. Researchers are looking into this for advanced uveal melanoma.
Immunotherapy is a type of biological therapy that works by encouraging the immune system to attack cancer cells. Immunotherapy drugs include ipilimumab, nivolumab and pembrolizumab. Trials have shown these drugs to be helpful in some people with melanoma of the skin, and researchers hope they will also help treat eye melanoma.
You can find out more about biological therapy trials for eye cancer on our clinical trials database. Type eye cancer into the search box. If you want to see all the trials, tick the boxes for closed trials and trial results.
Chemotherapy does not generally work well for eye melanoma. However, researchers continue to look at different combinations of drugs to see if they help eye melanoma that has spread (advanced cancer). The chemotherapy drugs being looked at include gemcitabine, treosulfan, cisplatin and dacarbazine. Although results from early trials were promising, larger trial results have not been as good.
Researchers continue to look at different combinations of chemotherapy drugs alongside biological therapies such as selumetinib.
To find UK trials looking into treating eye cancer, go to our clinical trials database. Type 'eye cancer' in the search box. To see all the trials, tick the boxes for closed trials and trials results.
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