Where this carcinoid information comes from | Cancer Research UK
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Where this carcinoid information comes from

Men and women discussing carcinoid cancer

This page shows the major sources of information that we use to put together this section of the website.


About this page

All our information is checked by cancer specialists and surgeons who specialise in treating cancer. The names of our specialist reviewers are at the end of this list. We also try to find patients to review all our sections. If you have had carcinoid, live in the UK, and would like to become a patient reviewer, you can write to us by clicking on contact us.



Cancer Research UK
CancerStats Series

US National Cancer Institute
Information on the treatment of carcinoid tumours



Cancer principles and practice of oncology (10th edition)
De Vita, VT, Lawrence TS and Rosenberg SA.
Wolters Kluwer Health, 2015

Cancer and its management (7th edition)
Tobias J and Hochhauser D
Wiley Blackwell, 2015

The Textbook of Uncommon Cancers (4th edition)
Raghavan D, Blanke C, Johnson D & others (eds)
Wiley Blackwell, 2012

AJCC Cancer Staging Manual (7th edition)
American Joint Committee on Cancer
Springer, 2010


UK guidelines

Referral for suspected cancer. A clinical practice guideline.
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), June 2015

Scottish referral guidelines for suspected cancer.
Healthcare Improvement Scotland, August 2014

Guidelines for the management of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine (including carcinoid) tumours (NETs). Ramage J, Ahmed A, Ardill J and others. Gut. 2012. 61 (1): 6-32

Consensus guidelines for the management of patients with neuroendocrine tumours
Scottish Neuroendocrine Tumour Group (SCONET), February 2015


Journal articles and reviews

Pulmonary neuroendocrine (carcinoid) tumors: European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society expert consensus and recommendations for best practice for typical and atypical pulmonary carcinoids. Caplin M, Baudin E, Ferolla P. & others. Annals of Oncology. 2015. 26: 1604-20

Role of hepatic intra-arterial therapies in metastatic therapies in metastatic neuroendocrine tumours (NET): guidelines from the NET-Liver-Metastases Consensus Conference. Kennedy A, Bester L, Salem R & others. HPB. 2015. 17: 29-37

Recommendations for management of patients with neuroendocrine liver metastases. Frilling A, Modlin IM & others, for the Working Group on Neuroendocrine Liver Metastases, The Lancet. 2014 Jan; 15: e8-21.

A large prospective study of risk factors for adenocarcinomas and malignant carcinoid tumors of the small intestine. Cross A, Hollenback A, Park Y. Cancer Causes and Control. 2013; 24:1737-1746.

Neuroendocrine gastro-entero-pancreatic tumors:ESMO clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow up. Oberg K, Knigge U, Kwekkeboom D & others. Annals of Oncology. 2012. 23 (suppl 7): vii 124-130

A 5-decade analysis of 13,715 carcinoid tumors. Modlin I, Lye K, Kidd M, Cancer. 2003; 97(4): 934-959.

Primary appendiceal carcinoma - epidemiology, surgery and survival: results of a German multi-center study. Benedix F, Reimer A, Gastinger I & others. European Journal of Surgical Oncology, 2010 Aug;36(8):763-71.

Carcinoid heart disease: case and literature review. Dumoulein M, Verslype C, van Cutsem E & others. Acta Cardiologica. 2010. 65(2):261-4.


Specialist reviewers

Mr Tariq Ismail, Consultant surgeon
Dr Marianne Nicolson, Consultant Oncologist



Dee McLean - McDee Art, Medical Illustrations

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Updated: 30 June 2016