Where this breast cancer information comes from | Cancer Research UK
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Where this breast cancer information comes from

Men and women discussing breast cancer

On this page are the major sources of information that we use to put together this section of the website.


About this page

All our information is checked by cancer specialists and surgeons who specialise in treating cancer. The names of our specialist reviewers are at the end of this list. We also try to find patients to review all our sections. If you have had breast cancer, live in the UK, and would like to become a patient reviewer, you can write to us by clicking on contact us.



Cancer Research UK
CancerStats Series

US National Cancer Institute
Information on the treatment of breast cancer

NHS Breast Screening Programme
Information about breast screening and treatment for DCIS found by breast screening


UK guidance

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence Guidelines 

  • Addendum to managing complications (chapter 6) of advanced breast cancer clinical guideline (methods, evidence and recommendations), May 2014
  • Early and locally advanced breast cancer: diagnosis and treatment – February 2009
  • Advanced breast cancer: diagnosis and treatment – February 2009
  • Clinical guidelines for the classification and care of women at familial risk of breast cancer – October 2006
  • Service guidance on supportive and palliative care – March 2004
  • Referral Guidelines for Suspected Cancer – June 2015

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence Appraisals

  • Breast cancer (early) – intrabeam radiotherapy system: appraisal consultation document, July 2014
  • Intraoperative tests (RD-100i OSNA system and Metasin test) for detecting sentinel lymph node metastases in breast cancer, August 2013
  • Familial breast cancer: Classification and care of people at risk of familial breast cancer and management of breast cancer and related risks in people with a family history of breast cancer – June 2013
  • Lapatinib or trastuzumab in combination with an aromatase inhibitor for the first line treatment of metastatic hormone receptor positive breast cancer that overexpresses HER2 – June 2012
  • Eribulin for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer – April 2012
  • Fulvestrant for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer – December 2011
  • Docetaxel for the adjuvant treatment of early, node positive breast cancer – January 2011
  • Endoscopic mastectomy and endoscopic wide local excision for breast cancer – April 2009
  • Ex vivo hepatic resection and reimplantation for liver cancer – April 2009
  • Image guided radiofrequency excision biopsy of breast lesions – July 2009
  • Brachytherapy as the sole method of adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer after local excision – July 2008
  • Gemcitabine for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer – January 2007
  • Paclitaxel for the adjuvant treatment of early, node positive breast cancer – September 2006
  • Hormone therapies for the adjuvant treatment of early oestrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer – November 2006
  • Trastuzumab for the adjuvant treatment of early stage HER2-positive breast cancer – August 2006
  • Endoscopic axillary lymph node retrieval for breast cancer – July 2005
  • Interstitial laser therapy for breast cancer – September 2004
  • The clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness of trastuzumab for breast cancer – March 2002

Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN)

  • Management of breast cancer in women – December 2005, updated 2006

Scottish Medicines Consortium 

  • Trastuzumab (Herceptin) for HER2 positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) and early breast cancer (EBC), January 2014
  • Lapatinib (Tyverb) for HER2 positive cancer, November 2013
  • Pertuzumab (Perjeta) in combination with trastuzumab and docetaxel for HER2-positive metastatic or locally recurrent unresectable breast cancer, October 2013
  • Everolimus (Afinitor) for advanced breast cancer, July 2013
  • Bevacizumab for first line treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer, May 2012
  • Eribulin mesylate (Halaven) for locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) or metastatic breast cancer (MBC), October 2011
  • Docetaxel (Taxotere) for breast cancer, November 2010
  • Paclitaxel (Abraxane) for metastatic breast cancer, April 2010
  • Vinorelbine for advanced breast cancer – 2007
  • Early breast cancer in hormone receptor positive postmenopausal women who have received 2 to 3 years of adjuvant tamoxifen – 2006
  • Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin for metastatic breast cancer – 2006
  • Letrozole for adjuvant treatment of postmenopausal women with hormone receptor positive invasive early breast cancer – 2006
  • Gemcitabine for women with metastatic breast cancer who have relapsed following adjuvant/neoadjuvant chemotherapy – 2006
  • Letrozole for invasive early breast cancer in postmenopausal women who have already received standard tamoxifen therapy – 2005
  • Gemcitabine in combination with paclitaxel for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer – 2005
  • Exemestane for postmenopausal women with oestrogen receptor positive invasive early breast cancer, following 2–3 years of initial adjuvant tamoxifen therapy – 2005
  • Fulvestrant for metastatic breast cancer – 2004

Association of Breast Surgery
Link to website

  • Acellular Dermal Matrix (ADM) assisted breast reconstruction procedures, 2013
  • Oncoplastic breast reconstruction: Guidelines for best practice, 2012
  • Lipomodelling guidelines for breast surgery, 2011
  • Surgical guidelines for management of breast cancer, 2011

Royal College of Radiologists (RCR)
Link to guidelines

  • Guidance on Screening and Symptomatic Breast Imaging (Third Edition), 2013


Principles and practice of oncology (9th edition)
De Vita, V.T., Hellman, S. and Rosenberg S.A.
Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, 2011


Reviews and articles

Trastuzumab containing regimens for early breast cancer. L Moja, L Tagliabue, S Balduzzi, E Parmelli, V Pistotti, V Guarneri, R D'Amico, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012.

National Mastectomy and Breast Reconstruction Audit. 2011, The NHS Information Centre.

The treatment of early breast cancer in women over the age of 70. A Ring, M Reed, R Leonard, I Kunkler, H Muss, H Wildiers, L Fallowfield, A Jones, R Coleman. British Journal of Cancer, 2011: pp 189–193.

Comparative Effectiveness of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ Management and the Roles of Margins and Surgeons. Dick and others. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2011: Vol. 103, Issue 2.

Ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast: a systematic review of incidence, treatment, and outcomes. Virnig and others. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2010: Vol. 102, Issue 3.

NHS Breast Screening Programme Annual Review. NHS Cancer Screening Programmes, 2012.

Overview of the Randomized Trials of Radiotherapy in Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS) of the Breast. Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group (EBCTCG), 09 June 2010

Pathologic and biologic response to preoperative endocrine therapy in patients with ER-positive ductal carcinoma in situ. Chen Y. BMC Cancer, Aug 2009 9:285

Local Excision Alone Without Irradiation for Ductal Carcinoma In Situ of the Breast: A trial of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group.
Hughes and others. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2009 Vol 29, No 32.

Early breast cancer. Benson and others. The Lancet 2009; 373: 1463-79

Chemotherapy alone versus endocrine therapy alone for metastatic breast cancer. (Cochrane Review). Wilcken N, Hornbuckle J, Ghersi D.  In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 2, reviewed 2008.

Survival of invasive breast cancer according to the Nottingham Prognostic Index in cases diagnosed in 1990 to 1999. R W Blamey and others, European Journal of Cancer 43 (2007) 1548-1555.

Hormonal therapy for menopause and breast-cancer risk by histological type: a cohort study and meta-analysis.
Reeves G, Beral V, Green J, Gathani T, Bull D, for the Million Women Study Collaborators. Lancet Oncology 2006;7: pp 910–918

Hormone replacement therapy and false positive recall in the Million Women Study: patterns of use, hormonal constituents and consistency of effect. E Banks and others. Journal of Breast Cancer Research, 2006


Specialist reviewers

  • Mr Ramsey Cutress BM BCh MA PhD FRCS (Consultant surgeon)
  • Dr A Stevens, MBBS FRCP FRCR (Consultant cancer specialist)
  • Professor Stephen Duffy (Professor of cancer screening)
  • Clare Lait, BSc(Hons), MCSP (Specialist MSK oncology physiotherapist – information about exercises after breast reconstruction)
  • Catriona M Futter, BSc(Hons), MPhil, MCSP (Senior physiotherapist – information about exercises after breast reconstruction)
  • Susan Thomson (Patient reviewer)


Dee McLean – MeDee Art, Medical Illustration

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Updated: 11 August 2014