Where this bowel cancer information comes from
On this page are the major sources of information that we use to put together this section of the website.
All our information is checked by cancer specialists and surgeons who specialise in treating cancer. The names of our specialist reviewers are at the end of this list. We also try to find patients to review all our sections. If you have had bowel cancer, live in the UK, and would like to become a patient reviewer, you can write to us by clicking on contact us.
Cancer Research UK
NHS Cancer Screening Programme website (England)
European Perspective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)
US National Cancer Institute
Information on the treatment of bowel cancer
Cancer and its management (6th edition)
Tobias J and Hochhauser D
Cancer principles and practice of oncology (9th edition)
De Vita VT, Lawrence TS and Rosenberg S.A.
Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, 2011
TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours (5th edition)
Editors: L.H. Sobin, Ch. Wittekind. International Union Against Cancer. Publisher: John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, New Jersey, 2002.
Colorectal cancer: the diagnosis and management of colorectal cancer
National Institute of Health and Care Excellence, November 2011
Colonoscopic surveillance for prevention of colorectal cancer in people with ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease or adenomas
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, March 2011
Guidelines for the Management of Colorectal Cancer (3rd Edition)
Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland, 2007.
Referral Guidelines for Suspected Cancer
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, June 2015
Scottish referral guidelines for suspected cancer: Quick reference guide
The Scottish Government, March 2009
Improving Outcomes in Colorectal Cancers – Manual Update
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, May 2004.
Improving Supportive and Palliative Care for Adults with Cancer
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, March 2004.
Diagnosis and management of Colorectal Cancer
Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN), 2011
NICE Technology Appraisals – www.nice.org.uk
- Cetuximab, bevacizumab and panitumumab for advanced bowel cancer after first line chemotherapy (January, 2012)
- Selective internal radiation therapy for non resectable colorectal metastases in the liver (July 2011)
- Panitumumab in combination with chemotherapy for treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (December 2011)
- Bevacizumab for metastatic bowel cancer (December 2010)
- Radiofrequency ablation for colorectal liver metastases (December 2009)
- Cetuximab for the first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (August 2009)
- Ex-vivo hepatic resection and reimplantation for liver cancer (April 2009)
- Microwave ablation for the treatment of metastases in the liver (August 2011)
- Colorectal cancer (metastatic) – bevacizumab and cetuximab (January 2007)
- Preoperative high dose rate brachytherapy for rectal cancer (December 2006)
- Laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer (August 2006)
- Capecitabine and oxaliplatin in the treatment of Stage III (Dukes C) colorectal cancer (April 2006)
- Computed tomographic colonography (virtual colonoscopy) (June 2005)
Scottish Medicines Consortium – www.scottishmedicines.org.uk
- Aflibercept (Zaltrap) - July 2013 (SMC No. 878/13)
- Panitumumab (Vectibix) - February 2012 (SMC No. 769/12)
- Capecitabine and oxaliplatin for the treatment of stage 3 colorectal cancer - August 2011 (SMC No. 716/11)
- Cetuximab in combination with chemotherapy - April 2009 (SMC No. 543/09)
- Capecitabine for metastatic colorectal cancer - October 2008 (SMC No. 507/08)
- Bevacizumab (Avastin) - June 2006 (SMC No. 221/05)
Primary colon cancer: ESMO clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, adjuvant treatment and follow up. Labianca R, Nordlinger B, Beretta GD and others. Annals of Oncology. 2010. Vol 21 (suppl 5): 70-77
Rectal cancer: ESMO clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow up. Glimelius B, Pahlman L and Cervantes A. Annals of Oncology. 2010. Vol 21 (suppl 5): 82-86
Advanced colorectal cancer: ESMO clinical practice guidelines for treatment. Van Cutsem E, Nordlinger B, Cervantes A. Annals of Oncology. 2010. Vol 21 (suppl 5): 93-97
Guidelines for colorectal screening and surveillance in moderate and high risk groups (update from 2002). Cairns SR, Scholefield JH, Steele RJ and others. Gut. 2010. Vol 59: 666-690
Colorectal cancer. Cunningham D, Atkin W, Lenz HJ and others. The Lancet, 2010. Vol 375. Pages 1030–47.
Anti-angiogenic therapies for metastatic colorectal cancer (Cochrane Review). Wagner A., Arnold D, Grothey A, Haerting J, Unverzagt S. In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2009. Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.
Adjuvant Therapy for completely resected Stage II Colon Cancer. Figueredo A, Coombes ME, Mukherjee S. In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2008. Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.
Chromoscopy versus conventional endoscopy for the detection of polyps in the colon and rectum (Cochrane Review). Brown SR, Baraza W, Hurlstone P. In The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2008. Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.
Adjuvant Therapy for completely resected Stage II Colon Cancer. Figueredo A, Coombes ME, Mukherjee S. In The Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2008. Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.
Screening for colorectal cancer using the faecal occult blood test, Hemoccult. Hewitson P, Glasziou PP, Irwig L, Towler B, Watson E. In The Cochrane Library, 2007, Issue 1. Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.
Hepatic artery adjuvant chemotherapy for patients having resection or ablation of colorectal cancer metastatic to the liver (Cochrane Review). Nelson R, Freels S. In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 2, 2006. Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.
Dr Mark Saunders MBBS MRCP FRCR PhD
Mr Tariq Ismail MB BCh MD FRCS
Dee McLean – MeDee Art, Medical Illustration
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