Where this bowel cancer information comes from | Cancer Research UK
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Where this bowel cancer information comes from

Men and women discussing bowel cancer

On this page are the major sources of information that we use to put together this section of the website.


About our information

All our information is checked by cancer specialists and surgeons who specialise in treating cancer. The names of our specialist reviewers are at the end of this list. We also try to find patients to review all our sections. If you have had bowel cancer, live in the UK, and would like to become a patient reviewer, you can write to us by clicking on contact us.



Cancer Research UK
CancerStats Series

NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (England)

Screening Scotland - Bowel Screening

Bowel Screening Wales

Northern Ireland Bowel Screening

European Perspective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

US National Cancer Institute
Information on the treatment of bowel cancer 



Cancer and its management (7th edition)
Tobias J and Hochhauser D
Wiley Blackwell, 2015

Cancer principles and practice of oncology (10th edition)
De Vita VT, Lawrence TS and Rosenberg SA.
Wolters Kluwer Health, 2015

TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours (5th edition)
Editors: LH Sobin, Ch. Wittekind. International Union Against Cancer 
John Wiley and Sons, 2002.


UK guidelines

Colorectal cancer: the diagnosis and management of colorectal cancer
National Institute of Health and Care Excellence, November 2011

Colonoscopic surveillance for prevention of colorectal cancer in people with ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease or adenomas 
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, March 2011

Referral Guidelines for Suspected Cancer
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, June 2015

Scottish referral guidelines for suspected cancer: Quick reference guide
The Scottish Government, March 2009

Improving Supportive and Palliative Care for Adults with Cancer
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, March 2004.

Diagnosis and management of Colorectal Cancer
Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN), 2011

NICE Technology Appraisals www.nice.org.uk

  • Aflibercept in combination with irinotecan and fluorouracil-based therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer that has progressed following oxaliplatin-based chemo (March, 2014)
  • Cetuximab, bevacizumab and panitumumab for advanced bowel cancer after first line chemotherapy (January, 2012)
  • Selective internal radiation therapy for non resectable colorectal metastases in the liver (July 2011)
  • Panitumumab in combination with chemotherapy for treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (December 2011)
  • Bevacizumab for metastatic bowel cancer (December 2010)
  • Radiofrequency ablation for colorectal liver metastases (December 2009)
  • Cetuximab for the first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (August 2009)
  • Ex-vivo hepatic resection and reimplantation for liver cancer (April 2009)
  • Microwave ablation for the treatment of metastases in the liver (August 2011)
  • Colorectal cancer (metastatic) – bevacizumab and cetuximab (January 2007)
  • Preoperative high dose rate brachytherapy for rectal cancer (December 2006)
  • Laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer (August 2006)
  • Capecitabine and oxaliplatin in the treatment of Stage III (Dukes C) colorectal cancer (April 2006)
  • Computed tomographic colonography (virtual colonoscopy) (June 2005)

Scottish Medicines Consortiumwww.scottishmedicines.org.uk

  • Aflibercept (Zaltrap) - March 2014 (SMC No. 878/13)
  • Panitumumab (Vectibix) - July 2015 (SMC No. 769/12)
  • Capecitabine and oxaliplatin for the treatment of stage 3 colorectal cancer - August 2011 (SMC No. 716/11)
  • Cetuximab in combination with chemotherapy - April 2009 (SMC No. 543/09)
  • Capecitabine for metastatic colorectal cancer - October 2008 (SMC No. 507/08)
  • Bevacizumab (Avastin) - June 2008 (SMC No. 469/08)

Articles and reviews

Metastatic colorectal cancer: ESMO clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow up. Van Cutsem E, Cervantes A, Nordlinger B and others. Annals of Oncology 2014 Vol 25 (suppl 3): iii1-iii9

Rectal cancer: ESMO clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow up. Glimelius B, Tiret E, Cervantes A and others. Annals of Oncology. 2013. Vol 24 (suppl 6) vi81-88

Primary colon cancer: ESMO clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, adjuvant treatment and follow up. Labianca R, Nordlinger B, Beretta GD and others. Annals of Oncology. 2010. Vol 21 (suppl 5): 70-77

Current opinions on optimal treatment for colorectal cancer. Price T, Segelov E, Burge M and others. Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy. 2013. 13 (5): 597-611

Guidelines for colorectal screening and surveillance in moderate and high risk groups (update from 2002). Cairns SR, Scholefield JH, Steele RJ and others. Gut. 2010. Vol 59: 666-690

Colorectal cancer. Cunningham D, Atkin W, Lenz HJ and others. The Lancet, 2010. Vol 375. Pages 1030–47.

Adjuvant Therapy for completely resected Stage II Colon Cancer. Figueredo A, Coombes ME, Mukherjee S. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2008. Issue 3. Art No: CD005390. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD005390.pub2

Chromoscopy versus conventional endoscopy for the detection of polyps in the colon and rectum Brown SR, Baraza W, Hurlstone P. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2010. Art. No: CD006439. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006439.pub3

Screening for colorectal cancer using the faecal occult blood test, Hemoccult. Hewitson P, Glasziou PP, Irwig L, Towler B, Watson E. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2007, Issue 1. Art. No: CD10.1002/14651858.CD001216.pub2


Specialist reviewers

Dr Nazia Mohammed MBChB MRCP
Mr Tariq Ismail MB BCh MD FRCS



Dee McLean – MeDee Art, Medical Illustration

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Updated: 6 October 2015