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Where this bladder cancer information comes from

Men and women discussing bladder cancer

On this page are the major sources of information that we use to put together this section.


About our information

All our information is checked by cancer specialists and surgeons who specialise in treating cancer. The names of our specialist reviewers are at the end of this list. We also try to find patients to review all our sections. If you have had bladder cancer, live in the UK, and would like to become a patient reviewer, you can write to us by clicking on contact us.



Cancer Research UK
CancerStats Series

National Cancer Institute (US)



Principles and practice of oncology (9th edition)
De Vita VT, Hellman S and Rosenberg SA
Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, 2011

TNM (Tumour Node Metastases) Classification
Union International Contre le Cancer (UICC), 2009

Cancer and its management (6th edition)
Tobias J and Hochhauser D
Blackwell, 2010


UK and international guidelines

Bladder cancer: diagnosis and management National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), published February 2015

MDT (Multi Disciplinary Team) guidance for managing bladder cancer, British Association of Urological Surgeons (BAUS) Section of Oncology and British Uro-oncology Group (BUG), and Action on Bladder Cancer (ABC), January 2013. 

Guidelines on non muscle invasive bladder cancer (TaT1 and CIS). M Babjuk and others, European Association of Urology, 2012.

Guidelines on bladder cancer: muscle invasive and metastatic. A Stenzl and others, European Association of Urology, 2012.

Referral guidelines for suspected cancer. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), June 2005.

Management of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN), December 2005

World Health Organisation bladder cancer grading. WHO/International Society of Urological Pathology, 2004

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Appraisals

  • Electrically stimulated intravesical chemotherapy for superficial bladder cancer, Nov 2008
  • Intravesical microwave hyperthermia with intravesical chemotherapy for superficial bladder cancer, Oct 2007
  • Laparoscopic cystectomy, Dec 2003

The Scottish Medicines Consortium (SMC)    

  • Vinflunine for transitional cell cancer of the urothelial tract, Feb 2011
  • Screening for bladder cancer using the urinalysis/dipstick method, Feb 2010

Articles and reviews

Bladder cancer. DS Kaufman, WU Shipley, and As Feldman. The Lancet, 2009 Jul 18; 374 (9685): pp 239-49.

Urinary diversion and bladder reconstruction/replacement using intestinal segments for intractable incontinence or following cystectomy. JD Cody and others. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012.

Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin versus epirubicin for Ta and T1 bladder cancer. PF Shang and others. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011.

Gemcitabine for unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic bladder cancer. M Shelley and others. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2011.

Risk stratification nomogram. Predicting recurrence and progression in individual patients with Ta, T1 bladder cancer using EORTC risk tables: a combined analysis of 2596 patients from seven EORTC trials. Sylvester and others. European Urological Journal, 2006, 49: 466-77

Sequential BCG and electromotive Mitomycin C vs BCG alone for high risk superficial bladder cancer. Distasi et al. Lancet Oncology 2006, 7: 43-51.

Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy for invasive bladder cancer. Advanced Bladder Cancer Meta-analysis Collaboration. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004.

Small cell carcinoma of the bladder. P Sved and others. British Journal of Urology International, (2004), 94, p12 to 17.

Multicentre study comparing intravesical chemotherapy alone and with local microwave hyperthermia for prophylaxis of recurrence of superficial bladder cancer. Columbo R and others. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2003, 21: 4270-6.


Specialist reviewers

Dr GB Mead, DM, FRCP (consultant oncologist)
Mr M Bailey, MS, FRCS (consultant urology surgeon)
Gabi MacEwan (patient reviewer)



Dee McLean, MeDee Art, Medical Illustration

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Updated: 1 July 2015