Find out what a rare cancer is, and how you might feel about having a rare cancer.
What it is
A cancer is considered rare if it starts in an unusual place in the body. Or if the cancer is an unusual type and needs special treatment.
What makes a cancer rare
There are more than 200 different types of cancer, including leukaemias and lymphomas. They develop from the different types of cells in different parts of the body.
Some of these cancers are common, such as breast, bowel, prostate and lung cancer. Some types are uncommon and some are rare.
Experts have slightly different ideas about what makes a cancer rare. Some say that a type of cancer is rare if fewer than 2 in 100,000 people are diagnosed with it each year.
Other experts say it is rare if fewer than 6 in 100,000 people are diagnosed each year. This means that 1 in 5 people diagnosed with cancer in Europe have a rare type.
Research also shows that about 1 in 3 people with a rare cancer have a particularly rare type.
Sub types of more common cancers
Doctors and researchers are learning more and more about cancer, leukaemias and lymphomas. They are identifying particular features that divide some cancers into sub types. Some of these sub types are considered rare.
Some rare sub types are treated the same way as other cancers of that type. Some cancer sub types are treated differently. For example, small cell cancer of the cervix is treated differently to most other cervical cancers.
It can be more difficult to find useful information about a rare type of cancer. Ask your doctor or specialist nurse if they know of any suitable information. You could ask about the best term to use if you want to look for information online.
To see if we have any information, type the name in the search box at the top of each page. Or look for your cancer type on our A to Z list of cancer types.
Coping and isolation
Many people feel isolated if they have a rare type of cancer. You might find that you are less likely to meet other people with the same type.
Having a rare cancer could mean you need to travel to a specialist hospital for treatment. This might be far from your home. You could feel cut off from family and friends. So it's important to give yourself time to cope.