Find about the possible risks and causes of nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancers.
How common nasal and sinus cancer is
Cancer of the nasal cavity and sinuses is rare. Only around 440 cases are diagnosed in the UK each year. Compared with around 41,600 cases of bowel cancer diagnosed each year, you can see how rare it is.
Factors that increase your risk
We do know that a few things can increase your risk, including the following:
Exposure to some chemicals
Research suggests that working in some jobs increases your risk of developing cancers in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. This is because they can expose you to certain chemicals.
The Health and Safety Executive produced a report in 2012 that looked at whether there were particular occupations that increase the risk of nasal and paranasal cancers. They state that around a third of nasal and paranasal sinus cancers are linked to occupation.
The following may increase your risk:
- Wood dust – people who work in carpentry, including furniture and cabinet makers, wooden floors and any other wood related industry
- Leather dust – shoe makers may be exposed to leather dust
- Chromium - is a chemical used in stainless steel, textiles, plastics, leather. The use of chromium is now restricted in Europe.
- Nickel – is a metal used to make stainless steel
- Formaldehyde – an industrial chemical used to make other chemicals, building materials, and household products
- Cloth fibres - people who work in the textile manufacturing may be exposed to these fibres
- Mineral oils - used in production. Mineral oils are used as a lubricant by metal workers, machinists and engineers. Also used in the printing industry
Human papilloma virus (HPV)
HPV is a common virus that can cause small growths or warts. There are lots of different strains of HPV and some are high risk for other types of cancer, such as cervical cancer.
More than 1 in 5 cases of nasal and paranasal sinus cancers are linked to HPV. Of the different types of HPV, type 16 is the most common with nasal and sinus cancers.
Smoking increases your risk of nasal cavity cancer. If you smoke regularly you are at a higher than average risk of developing this type of cancer.
Cigarettes contain nitrosamines and other chemicals that cause cancer. When you smoke, the smoke may pass through your nasal cavity on its way to your lungs.
Your risk increases the longer you smoke. If you smoke a lot, you increase your risk even more. If you give up smoking, your risk gradually falls.
Radiotherapy for hereditary retinoblastoma
A long term follow up study has shown an increased risk of nasal cancer in people treated with radiotherapy for hereditary retinoblastoma compared to the general population.
Factors that may increase your risk
There are also possible risk factors. This means some researchers suspect they may be risk factors, but there isn’t enough evidence to be sure.
Benign nose conditions
Some studies have shown an increased risk of nasal and sinus cancer in people with a history of sinus or nose problems. It is likely these conditions are an early sign of nasal and sinus cancer rather than increasing the risk of developing the cancer.
A few studies show an increased risk of nasal and sinus cancer in people with a history of nasal polyps.
Previous non Hodgkin lymphoma
A study has shown that people who have had non Hodgkin lymphoma have more than double the risk of nasal cavity cancer compared to the general population.