How air pollution can cause cancer
Air pollution is a mixture of many different substances and the exact contents vary depending on what sources of pollution are nearby, your location, the time of year and even the weather. Sources of air pollution can be man-made, such as fumes from vehicles and smoke from burning fuels. While others, such as North African desert dust, are natural.
Air pollution is often separated into outdoor air pollution and indoor air pollution.
Although both indoor and outdoor air pollutants have been shown to increase the risk of cancer, it’s important to keep the risk in perspective.
Outdoor air pollution
Air pollution is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. Although the increased risk of cancer is small for individuals, because everyone is exposed to some air pollution, it has an important effect across the population as a whole.
In 2013, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) brought together a panel of experts to review the evidence on outdoor air pollution and cancer. This panel decided that there was enough evidence to say that outdoor air pollution can cause cancer in people.
And that there was enough evidence to say that a specific part of air pollution known as PM 2.5 (solid dust-like particles, or ‘Particulate Matter’, less than 2.5 millionths of a metre across) can cause cancer. Read more about the IARC decision on our blog.
How big is the risk in the UK?
The risk depends on the level of air pollution people are regularly exposed to, but it’s hard to say exactly how much the risk is affected for the people living in a certain area. One of the best understood air pollutants is PM2.5, the risk of developing lung cancer increases as the level of PM2.5 increases.
Because levels of PM2.5 are relatively low in the UK this increase in risk for an individual is fairly small compared to other risk factors for lung cancer such as smoking.
An estimated 7.8% of lung cancers each year in the UK are thought to be caused by PM2.5 air pollution exposure.
PM2.5 is also found in tobacco smoke, and being a smoker exposes you to much higher levels of PM2.5 – and cancer risk – than air pollution in the UK. Tobacco is the single biggest preventable cause of cancer, and 86% of lung cancer cases in the UK are linked to tobacco smoking.
You can find out more about air pollution levels in different regions of the UK on the UK-AIR website.
How high is UK air pollution?
Compared to other countries around the world, the UK has fairly low levels of air pollution, and for most pollutants it is within the EU limits.
But some places, especially cities like London and Glasgow, experience higher levels of pollution. This is particularly a problem with nitrogen dioxide, where the UK is in breach of its EU commitments.
At the moment it is unclear whether NO2 could directly cause cancer. With increasing NO2 concentration the risk of lung cancer also appears to increase, but unlike PM 2.5 it’s not clear how NO2 in itself could be increasing cancer risk. It is possible that NO2, which is mainly given off by road transport, is a marker of other pollutants also given off by vehicles, and that it is these that increase the risk of cancer.
Air pollution isn’t only linked to lung cancer, there is also good evidence that it can increase the risk of other diseases, mainly respiratory diseases and heart disease.
Cancer Research UK wants to see Government and local authorities working together to develop a comprehensive strategy to reduce air pollution to protect people’s health.
What can I do?
As individuals, we can play our part in reducing air pollution levels by trying to avoid creating more of it. Choosing ‘active travel’ options where possible, like walking and cycling, can help reduce pollution levels from transport and is also a great way to be more active, which is linked to a reduced risk of cancer and other diseases.
If you want to find out more, the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) have published a useful guide to air pollution in the UK. As well as information on air quality and monitoring, Defra’s UK-air website has air pollution forecasts for your area and the Met Office are starting to include the predicted daily air quality index in their forecasts.
Indoor air pollution
Indoor air pollution can have many sources, including fuels used to heat homes and cook with and tobacco smoke. In the UK, the most important type of indoor air pollution is second-hand smoke.
Second hand smoke
Currently, millions of people in the UK are exposed to second-hand smoke, and for children most of this exposure occurs in their own homes. Second-hand smoke increases the risk of cancer and other diseases, such as heart disease and stroke, leading to thousands of deaths every year.